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1.1 Background of the study
Communication is a variety of behaviours, processes and technologies by which meaning is transmitted or derived from information. The term is used to describe diverse activities. Communication is at the core of our humanness. How we communicate with each other shapes our lives and our world. Human beings rely on their communicative skills as they confront events that challenge their flexibility, integrity, expressiveness, and critical thinking skills. Communication involves different forms which includes the intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, public, mass communication etc. All these are different ways/means through which we interact, associate, communicate, relate, share ideas, views, opinion, information, norms and values with ourselves and others. Communication is regarded as the life blood of human existence which rapidly enhances unity that leads to the development of our society at large.
Communication both modern and Traditional means has promoted peaceful co-existence, understanding and self-awareness among human beings. Both modern and traditional means of communication have certain common elements that together help define the communication process. These elements includes the following people. In communication there must be individuals who are involved in the dissemination of the message and at the same time receiving the message in order to make it lively and effective. In communication things are done simultaneously (sending and receiving) if we were just receivers, we would be no more than receptacles for signals from others, never having an opportunity to let anyone know how we were being affected, if we were just senders, we would simply emit signals without ever stopping to consider whom, if anyone is being affected. But, if we were able to achieve our goals of communicating it simply signifies that there is an effective communication between the sender and the receiver at the same level.
Communication has variety functions in our lives based on our daily activities, communication helps us to create an understanding and insight. It allows us to understand ourselves and others at the same time. Creating an insight into ourselves and others. This is because when you get to know another person you get to know yourself, you learn how others affect you. Communication also helps us to create a meaningful relationships between ourselves and others, the level of communication between us and others determines the level of our relationship with them. Just as we need water, food and shelter, when we do not communicate we become disoriented and maladjusted, and our life itself may be placed in Jeopardy. Communication also helps to influence and to persuade others, making the people around us to be able to do things the way we do, believe in what we do, Exchange the same culture with us. And whenever people are being influenced by our idea and belief it means that our goals has been achieve.
According to Gamble and Gamble (2002) communication works, seventh edition, Remarks that “Communication gives us the chance to share our personal reality with persons from our culture, as well as people from different cultures”. Communication takes the same shape whether we live in an East Coast Urban area, a southern city, a desert community, in rural area, a home in sunny California, a village in Asia, a plain in African or a town in the middle East, we all engage in Similar activities when we communicate. We may use different symbols rely on different strategies, and desire different outcomes but the processes we use and the motivations we have are strikingly alike.
However in a bid to promote communication, various government of the world have among other things been constructing roads, purchasing equipment and training personnel for any meaningful development to occur in Nigeria and Africa in general. There should be equal participation of both urban and rural settings of the society. One way of achieving this is through the utilization of traditional communication media in conjunction with the modern mass media. Therefore, revival of our communication media is one of the steps in bringing about economic and social development in the rural setting of our country Nigeria. The desires of information about people and events, the satisfaction of news hunger stimulated by war or rumors of war, the necessity to spread information about political and religious decisions as well as threats to security, the need to stimulate and strengthen the sense of identification with values and objectives of the society, need of awareness of the authority structure and to generate and identify loyalty to those in power, all these were answered by the indigenous media form of communication. Anthropologists, looking at human communication and development tend to focus on its central roles in continuation of a society through the communication and development of significant symbols. The concept of honour, bravery, Love, co-operation and honesty, for example are embodied in language and other symbolic behaviors that create and sustain belief in ways of acting because they function as names signifying proper, obvious ways of expressing relationships. During the late 1900’s and early 2000’s the concept of culture became a focus of study in many academic disciplines including that of communication and development. To social scientists, culture means people’s beliefs, customs, inventions and technology. Cultural studies of communication began attracting interest in Europe in the 1960’s and 1990s soon gained supports worldwide. Cultural critics like Raymond Williams and Stuart Hall and other scholars in the United Kingdom developed this approach that focuses on how the contemporary communication media shape people’s understanding and action. Revival of our culture as a whole is necessarily because it will enhance overall national development of our Traditional Artifacts as channels of communication. Communication is the exchange of ideas and each society has its own communication culture to reach its people. Every culture should not be by passed, hence the interest in studying Iwollo Ezeagu community to see their communication development systems became imperative.
When coordinated with modern ways of communication, news becomes more effective those various assertions are challenging and inspiring and the social sciences researchers in this area stood up for the challenges and inspirations. They have at least come up with various studies in African traditional media of communication which were unfortunately treated at the periphery in the past. The negligence was caused by lack of foresight, lack of fund, man power and interest. Such studies are now necessary because of the need to diffuse current international and national development program in rural areas, which accommodate more than 70 percent of Africa’s population. Such programs include family planning, oral dehydration, war against indiscipline, and corruption, operation feed the Nation of Obasanjo’s previous government, Directorate for food, Roads and Rural infrastructure (DFRR), Better life for Rural Women, MAMSER, WOTCLEF and other innovative ideas. The need for traditional communication institution in most African countries including Nigeria by the United Nations Education Scientific and cultural organization (UNESCO) and the government of different countries. The World Bank Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC) various festivals of Art are Epitomes of cultural reformation.
The Traditional media of communication should be elevated by every citizen of this country both the government, individuals and more especially the Journalists who only pay mush interest in the foreign means neglecting the fact that the traditional media of our communication in this country is the grass root of their profession.
They should endeavour to promote these various traditional media of communication without emphasizing so much in the modern means by visiting various villages, communities etc more especially their own community to know how the various traditional media of communication are being coordinated for the promotion of our cultural belief which enhance unity in the rural area that leads to the development of our communities and country at large. Notwithstanding the modern means of communication, since the dawn of civilization for millions of years ago, every society’s growth, survival and continuity depends on, among other things a system of communication, through which people could exchange ideas and feelings; an economic system for the production of goods and services; a health system to counteract disease and ensure human reproduction; a socio – political system to maintain control and order and a defense system to protect their territories against external aggression of all these essential requirements of society, the system of communication formed the mainstay of all the other systems, which came to depend on it for effectiveness.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In communication processes especially as regards to modern media such as the print and the electronic media, the rural people seems to be marginalized due to several factors. In spite of these factors, traditional artifacts could be positively exploited and utilized to meet the needs of rural populace. How far the harnessing and utilization of these traditional means would get to solve the problem of the rural teasels the primary concern of this research.
The importance of traditional artifacts where it will enhance rural based on communication and development, how effective are the traditional communication media, what similarities and dissimilarities exist between these media and traditional communication systems of Iwollo communities are all some of the problems this study is set out to look into. The problem therefore is to find how effective traditional institution communication networking system acts as an instrument for rural development.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
This study is aimed at identifying the role of traditional institution communication networking system in the development of Iwollo town in ezeagu Local Government Area of Enugu State and other rural communities.
i) To examine the usefulness of traditional institution communication networking system in rural communities.
ii) To ascertain if traditional communication can be used as an effective tool for rural mobilization and development; in Iwollo Oghe community.
iii) To ascertain the possible hindrances to effective utilization of traditional institution communication network
iv) To ascertain that traditional institution communication networking system is a tools for rural development;
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following null and alternate hypotheses were formulated by the researcher for this study;
Ho: Traditional institution communication system cannot be used for effective rural mobilization and development.
H1: Traditional institution communication system can be used for effective rural mobilization and development.
Ho: There are no significant hindrances to effective utilization of traditional institution communication network system.
H2: There are significant hindrances to effective utilization of traditional institution communication network system.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be a humble contribution towards the development of traditional institution communication system in Iwollo oghe community as a whole. This study will bring the importance of traditional institution of communication as veritable tool that can be used to successfully execute their project and programmes at the grass root level. This knowledge will equally help them (development partners/agencies) to appreciate the importance people attach to their culture and language, especially, the dialect peculiar to a particular area. The findings will enable the rural dwellers to compare and contrast between modern and traditional communication system which is better and more effective in brining development to their areas. Whichever form of communication that has more advantage will inform the rural dwellers; preference and usage. However, the power and imperativeness of traditional communication would still be established for appreciation by the rural dweller
Finally, this study will serve as reference materials for further studies by researchers and scholar. In case, there are areas or issues that are perceived not to be treated in detail or comprehensively, the study will help to elicit curiosity, capable of inciting research interest in this area.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
As stated in the introduction the study is in Iwollo community in Ezeagu North Local Government Area of Enugu state. The study identifies the traditional institution communication tools mostly used by the people of the community in the past and this present day.
Time: the time at the researcher’s disposal tends to limit this study as the researcher had to combine both research work and schools activities such as lectures, seminars and exams.
Inadequate cooperation: Due to possible lack of maximum co-operation, this study might be limited to information collected from population figure of the community under study, the low literacy rate,
AVAILABILITY OF MATERIALS: non-availability of previous study on the topic and scarcity of previous study on the topic and scarcity of the text books limited this study.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Tradition: A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.
Traditional institution: A college, university, or other type of school that conducts the majority of their instruction on a physical campus with courses being taught primarily in person. Also referred to as brick-and-mortar institutions.
Mobilization: Mobilization, in military terminology, is the act of assembling and readying troops and supplies for war. The word mobilization was first used, in a military context, to describe the preparation of the Russian army during the 1850s and 1860s. Mobilization theories and techniques have continuously changed since then.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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