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Title page        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           i

Certification    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           ii

Dedication      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iii

Acknowledgements    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iv

Table of Contents       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           v

Abstract          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           vii


1.1       Background of study  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           1

1.2       Statement of Research            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           1

1.3       Purpose of the Study  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           2

1.4       Scope of Study-          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           2

1.5       Limitation of Study    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           2

1.6       Significance of the study        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           2

1.7       Method of the Study  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           7

1.8       Organization of work  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           8


2.1       Theories of Dramatic Elements-         -           -           -           -           -           -           4

2.2       Elements of a Festival Ceremony in Nigeria  -           -           -           -           -           5

2.3       Examples of Festivals in Nigeria        -           -           -           -           -           -           10


3.1       History of the Kalabaris          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           17

3.2       Historical Background of the Owu-Arusuun Festival            -           -           -           20

3.3       Owu-Arusuun Festival: Approach, Attire and purpose          -           -           -           33


4.1       Dramatic Elements      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           38

4.2       Types of Dramatic Elements   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           38

4.3       Analysis of the Elements in Owu-Arusuun Festival   -           -           -           -           45


5.1       Summary of findings  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           49

5.2       Recommendations      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           49

5.3       Conclusion      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           50

Works Cited


This study puts out the dramatic elements in the masquerade festival of the kalabaris which is also the biggest festival in the kalabari kingdom. Measures were taken to put the study together: the use of journals, articles, textbooks, interviews and also a bit of the internet, to put information correctly and spot out the dramatic elements to the view of the public so as to understand a festival to be more than just a ceremony but a drama sending out message to the society or indigenes. In the process of the research, it was noticed that all the years Owu-Arusun have been celebrated it was never seen as a drama driven ceremony, it has always been understood as just a festival bent on believe, religion and culture. It is recommended that organizers should take critical measures on elements of festivals and dramatic elements and also young scholars should put up more articles, on dramatic elements that could be found in different festivals for a more understanding of what forms of dramatic elements a festival should be made off.



1.1       Background of the Study

Generally festivals are known to be just a celebration of a particular culture of people, it is known to be putting up different activities in the art at celebrating. But it is important to know that in celebrations like festivals there are things to look out for such as; Dramatic elements. In every festivals there are actions to look out for, the way things are been done or carried out. The does, the do not and significance of what is done.

            The Owu-Arusun festival of the Kalabaris is sure loaded with a lot of dramatic elements though it features Masquerade and dance displays which the dramatic elements will be critically looked at and will make the society to understand that festivals are more than just a playing ceremony but has more to look at in a theatrical view.

            The practice of theatre began from all of these; festivals, rituals and other forms of cultural or human celebration that is why theatrical elements cannot be over looked no matter what the festivals is about there are always dramatic elements to spot out. And that is what will be done.

1.2       Statement of the Research

            Though there have been studies on different festivals including the Owu-Arusun festivals of the Kalabaris, No extension studies have been done on the theatrical elements. It is important to give a thorough break down on the theatrical elements and possibly their significance.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

            The purpose of this study is not just for the indigenes of Kalabari to understand more of the festival they have been partaking in, but for students and the society at large to also understand that the Owu-Arusun festival is not just a Masquerade festival but also have a great significance to its people and what the significance are.

1.4       Scope of the Study

            The study centres on the theatrical elements in Owu-Arusun festival. The Owu-Arusun festival is chosen because it is rich in activities and a lot of things that are done before, during and after the festival have a lot of significances in the activities done.

1.5       Limitations of the Study

Although the investigation attempted to forestall all identifiable design problems, the following limitations characterized it.

1. The investigation was limited to one festival in Africa. A research of other African festival may produce a different or more form of theatrical elements or elements of festivals in general or reflect different rites.

2. The study did not cover all the theatrical elements. It was limited to what we could describe as page reach.

1.6       Significance of the Study

The preservation of our tradition through festivals is one of our greatest concerns of this technological era. This study becomes significant because it tries to review the importance of theatrical elements and how in the form of the elements tradition still holds its place through the festival. Like Yakubu Basic (cited in NSA) ( 2002:104):

Observes as traditional communities disappearance and ancient culture is over whelmed, billions are losing the sense of place and the sense of self that gave life a meaning.

1.7       Method of the Study

This research will make use of critical methods of data collection, and interview, the library, the house knowledge and valuable recent documents relating to the research topic, will be put to maximum use with the aim of obtaining authentic information for this study. The method for this study is historical and literal.

1.8       Organization of Work

            The study is done in five related chapters this is Chapter one, which Focuses on the general introduction to the whole theatre. It presents a background to the study, the Owu-Arusun festival of the Kalabaris is put in context in relation to the research problem. The scope and significance of the study are also provided. Chapter two gives the literature for the study. It reviews relevant literature on theatrical elements in the Owu-Arusun festival of the Kalabaris. The study concentrates on Owu-Arusun festival of the Kalabaris, the theatrical elements are also discussed. And also how the festival is been done and lastly the need to bring more of theatrical elements. Chapter three is all about the festival and history of the Kalabaris, historical background of Owu-Arusun. The approach, active and purpose, chapter four preserves types of theatrical elements. Chapter five provides the summary, recommendation and conclusion.

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