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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This research touches on the various aspects of the mass media as instruments of political mobilization. In other words, it explores into the mass media as a mobilization agency during the political transition period.
It is thus, an important assumption of the work that a systematic study of political mobilization by mass media should include an examination and the nature of operation of the mass media communication in the Edo Broadcasting Service (EBS) Benin City.
The mass media generally referred to both the print(s) and electronic media as supported in section 22 of the 1989 constitution of Nigeria.
The press, radio, television and other agencies of the mass media should at all times be free to uphold the fundamental objectives and highlights the responsibility and accountability of the government to the people.
The role of the mass media according to General Abacha in his maiden independence broadcast on the 1st October 1995 was to unform, educate and entertain the citizen.
Onyishi (1996) while highlighting on the role of the mass media in democracy notes that the press not only sustains the democracy principles but also end with transaction period. The media should help an ushering in democracy they should play a crucial role in nurturing and sustaining the success or failure of our practice of democratic government. To large extent, their success depends on how well the mass media carries out their function as the mid wife of democracy.
This research therefore is intended to investigate how far the mass media had fulfilled this allowed obligation. It is hoped that the result of the work will be useful to media practitioners in the proper performance of their duties.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEMS:
In democracies, the mass media are the watch dog of the people. The citizen are usually mobilized and unformed to created awareness on the political culture.
By political culture, I refer to a system of politic in which sovereignty is vested on the people rather than a small clique, or an oligarchy, a political arrangement that places emphasis on the accountability of polity where the rule of law, majority rule and constitutionalism is the basic guiding principle.
Perhaps, it could be argued that the political crisis that pervaded our recent past points to the fact that most of our people are ignorant of an apathetic towards the country’s observe that in Nigeria electioneering and voting pattern cannot be validated, in the voting pattern of Nigerians and the possible estimation of the voter attitude towards political
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The level of political mobilization in Nigerian and Edo state in particular seems to be very low. Also the political crisis occurring in this country has equally been attributed to several factors. The purpose of this study is to identify the reasons or reasons that have contributed to these low political mobilization in Nigeria politics.
In doing so, what usually comes to mind is to ask the question what is the reason for the low political participation in Nigeria politics and equally the causes of the constant political crisis? As usually, it may be traced to several factors like low level of awareness and tribalism, how can this awareness be obtained? This will lead us to this research topic.
Therefore, this study is intended to inquire into how political mobilization as well as participation in Nigeria politics and equally trace the genesis of the political crisis that identifies the factors responsible and solution sought.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is expected that this study would be immense benefit to the government, the mass media and the people of this country. This study will highlight the importance of the mass media as a vehicle for political mobilization in a transition era.
Through the mass media, especially the radio and television Nigeria might have a chance of having a viable political culture and help to choose a leadership that will inculcate a viable and sustaining democracy. This will also give us a society blessed with.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
The basic question posted as a result of these problem includes the following:
a. Have the media been participating in elections in Nigeria and Edo state in particular.
b. Has ethnic problem been hindering the smooth conduct of election in this country?
c. Can the masses in the country be mobilized and informed using mass media organ?
d. What role has the mass media played to ensure a viable democracy?
1.6 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Since the research is directed as the mass media and political mobilization, the research is content on the broadcasting media in Edo state. (i.e. the Edo Broadcasting Services EBS)
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Conceptual and operational definitions of terms
a. Conceptual: Persons or duties in an undertaking.
b. Operational: Function or part of the duty the mass media dot o contribute national political consciousness and development.
2. MASS MEDIA
b. Conceptual: Existing channel through which government and its citizens communication to each other or means through which greater number of people are reached spontaneously with information.
a. Conceptual: Render something or some body move form initial position.
b. Operational: Cause people to be actively involved in politics, to be politically minded and conscious and to believe in political process and result.
a. Conception: Process of finding faults from what ever somebody else does
b. Operational: Unlimited supervision of the activities of the press by those news and commentaries with stipulated laws to punish what seems to the government as conditions.
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