THE INFLUNCE OF GLOBALISATION ON MEDIA AUDIENCE:UNILAG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT

THE INFLUNCE OF GLOBALISATION ON MEDIA AUDIENCE:UNILAG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Globalization is just to see the world with one eye and the apartheid of the privileged. It is the supreme myth of all that people invested their hopes and dreams in the expectation that the world would come together that was never been (Hirst and Thompson, 1996). Probably this is the view of the skeptic.
However, the globalizers like Giddens (1990) and Castells (1996) considered globalization as a central driving force behind the rapid social, political factors that are reshaping modern societies and world order. Although media and globalization are not always connected mutually, however, both are related.Marshall McLuhan made a connection by combining the medium is the message' with his global village'. Globalization has spread all over the world through media and communication which is referred to as mediated globalization' by Rantanen (2005:8). In order to connect media and communication together, Tomlinson defines globalization in the following way:―Globalization refers to the rapidly developing process of complex interactions between societies,cultures, institutions and individuals world-wide. It is a social process which involves a compression of time and space, shrinking distances through a dramatic reduction in the time taken-either physically or representational- to cross them, so making the world seem smaller and in a certain sense bringing
human being closer' to one another Globalization or (Globalization) refers to the increasingly global relationships of culture, people and economic activity. Most often, it refers to economics: the global distribution of the production of goods
and services, through reduction of barriers to international trade such as tariffs, export fees, and import quotas. Globalization accompanied and allegedly contributed to economic growth in developed and developing countries through increased specialization and the principle of comparative advantage. The
term can also refer to the transnational circulation of ideas, languages, and popular culture.Opponents of globalization alleged that globalization's benefits have been overstated and its costs underestimated. Among other points, they argued that it decreased inter-cultural contact while increasing the possibility of international and intra-national conflict.

1.2 DEFINITION
Anthony Mcgrew
Confirming that globalization is a multidimensional phenomena, pays due attention to the issue of communication, defining globalization as the increasing mutual communication. He introduces the following items as the components of his definition:
1 – Under the conditions of globalization, social, political and economic activities Influence and are influenced by the trans-national events.
2 – Globalization intensifies mutual interactions, creating a new global system.
3 – The growth of intensity and extent of communications leads to the elimination of the distance between domestic and international issues. In fact communications become so deep that the people on the side of their local lives feel a global aspect of their lives as well.
4 – Growing communications create some issues at transnational level which can be settled and handled only through global cooperation (proliferation of weapons and the problem of drug trafficking are among such issues).Globalization has also been defined from other aspects. Many thinkers have defined globalization only
from economic point of view. For instance, on the basis of a definition, globalization means economy,development and
domination of an economic production system on the societies of the world. Although this system does not rely on a single country, or a single source of economic-political power, it is mainly under the influence of the most powerful and effective economic-political units in the world.On the basis of another definition, globalization in simple language means unity of market, labor and production market, money and capital.Cultural globalization has been defined as a process that facilitates the transformation of cultural features to a part of the global cultural order and consequently the local cultures will be either eliminated or renovated.Majidi says many thinkers maintain that globalization in its cultural aspect is unification of various cultures and formation of a single global culture.This definition has drawn lots of criticisms and many consider the formation of such a culture neither possible nor likely.

1.3 HISTORY OF GLOBALIZATION
 The historical origins of globalization remain subject to debate. Though in common usage it refers to the period beginning in the 1970s, some scholars regard it as having an ancient history that
encompasses all international activity.

Archaid Period
Perhaps the most extreme proponent of a deep historical origin for globalization was Andre Gunder Frank, an economist associated with dependency theory. Frank argued that a form of globalization began with the rise of trade links between Sumer and the Indus Valley Civilization in the third millennium B.C.
This archaic globalization existed during the Hellenistic Age, when commercialized urban centers enveloped the axis of Greek culture that reached from India to Spain, including Alexandria and the other Alexandrine cities. Others pointed to the trade links between the Roman Empire, the Parthian Empire,and the Han Dynasty. The increasing commercial links between the powers took form in the Silk Road, which started in western China, reached the boundaries of the Parthian empire, and continued to Rome. As many as three hundred Greek ships sailed each year between the Greco-Roman world and India. Annual trade volume may have reached 300,000 tons.

Islamic and Mongol eras
The Islamic Golden Age showed another stage of globalization, when Jewish and Muslim traders and explorers established trade routes, resulting in a globalization of agriculture, trade, knowledge and technology. Crops such as sugar and cotton became widely cultivated across the Muslim world in this
period, while widespread knowledge of Arabic and the Hajj created a cosmopolitan culture.Portuguese carrack in Nagasaki, 17th century Japanese Nanban art Native New World crops exchanged globally: Maize, tomato, potato, vanilla, rubber, cacao, and tobacco.The advent of the Mongol Empire, though destabilizing to the commercial centers of the Middle East
and China, greatly facilitated travel along the Silk Road. The Pax Mongolica of the thirteenth century included the first international postal service, as well as the rapid transmission of epidemic diseases such as bubonic plague across Central Asia. Up to the sixteenth century; however, the largest systems of
international exchange were limited to Eurasia.

1.4 MASS MEDIA
Definition and Forms
"Mass media" is a deceptively simple term encompassing a countless array of institutions and individuals who differ in purpose, scope, method, and cultural context. Mass media include all forms of information communicated to large groups of people, from a handmade sign to an international news
network. There is no standard for how large the audience needs to be before communication becomes"mass" communication. There are also no constraints on the type of information being presented. A car advertisement and a U.N. resolution are both examples of mass media.Because "media" is such a broad term, it will be helpful in this discussion to focus on a limited
definition. In general usage, the term has been taken to refer to only "the group of corporate entities publishers, journalists, and others who constitute the communications industry and profession." This definition includes both the entertainment and news industries. Another common term, especially in talking about conflict, is "news media." News media include only the news industry. It is often used interchangeably with "the press" or the group of people who write and report the news. The distinction between news and entertainment can at times be fuzzy, but news is technically facts and interpretation of facts, including editorial opinions, expressed by journalism professionals. Which facts are included, how they are reported, how much interpretation is given, and how much space or time is
devoted to a news event is determined by journalists and management and will depend on a variety of factors ranging from the editorial judgment of the reporters and editors, to other news events competing for the same time or space, to corporate policies that reflect management's biases. Mass media refers collectively to all media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience via mass communication. Broadcast media (also known as electronic media) transmit their information electronically and comprise of television, film and radio, movies, CDs, DVDs and some other gadgets like cameras or video consoles. Alternatively, print media uses a physical object as a means of sending
their information, such as a newspaper, magazines, brochures, newsletters, books, leaflets and pamphlets. Photography can also be included under this subheading as it is a medium which
communicated through visual representations. The term also refers to the organizations which control these technologies, such as television stations or publishing companies. Mobile phones, computers and Internet are sometimes referred to as New-age Media. Internet media is able to achieve mass media status in its own right, due to the many mass media services it provides, such as email, websites,blogging, Internet and TV. For this reason, many mass media outlets have a presence on the web, by
such things as having TV ads which link to a website, or having games in their sites to entice gamers to visit their website. In this way, they can utilize the easy accessibility that the internet has, and the outreach that internet affords, as information can easily be broadcast to many different regions of the world simultaneously and cost-efficiently. Outdoor media is a form of mass media which comprises billboards, signs, placards placed inside and outside of commercial buildings/objects like shops/buses,flying billboards (signs in tow of airplanes), blimps, and skywriting. Public speaking and event organizing can also be considered as a form of mass media In the late 20th Century, mass media could be classified into eight mass media industries: books,newspapers, magazines, recordings, radio,movies,television and the internet. With the explosion of digital communication technology in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the question of what formsof media should be classified as "mass media" has become more prominent. For example, it is controversial whether to include cell phones, video games and computer games (such as MMORPGs) in the definition. In the 2000s, a classification called the "seven mass media" became popular. In order of
introduction, they are:
1. Print (books, pamphlets, newspapers, magazines, etc.) from the late 15th century
2. Recordings (gramophone records, magnetic tapes, cassettes, cartridges, CDs, DVDs) from the late 19th century
3. Cinema from about 1900
4. Radio from about 1910
5. Television from about 1950
6. Internet from about 1990
7. Mobile phones from about 2000
Each mass media has its own content types, its own creative artists and technicians, and its own business models. For example, the Internet includes web sites, blogs, podcasts, and various other technologies built on top of the general distribution network. The sixth and seventh media, internet and mobile, are often called collectively as digital media; and the fourth and fifth, radio and TV, as broadcast media. Some argue that video games have developed into a distinct mass form of media.
While a telephone is a two way communication device, mass media refers to medium which can communicate a message to a large group, often simultaneously. However, modern cell phones are no longer a single use device. Most cell phones are equipped with internet access and capable of connecting to the web which itself a mass medium. A question arises of whether this makes cell phones a mass medium or simply a device used to access a mass medium (the internet).There is currently a system where marketers and advertisers are able to tap into satellites, and broadcast commercials and advertisements directly to cell phones, unsolicited by the phone's user. This transmission of mass advertising to millions of people is a form of mass communication.Video games may also be evolving into a mass medium. Video games convey the same messages and ideologies to all their users. Users sometimes share the experience with each other by playing online.Excluding the internet however, it is questionable whether players of video games are sharing a
common experience when they play the game separately. It is possible to discuss in great detail the events of a video game with a friend you have never played with because the experience was identical to you both. The question is if this is then a form of mass communication.MMORPGS such as Run escape provide a common gaming experience to millions of users throughout
the globe. It is arguable that the users are receiving the same message, i.e., the game is mass communicating the same messages to the various players.

1.5 History of Mass Media
The history of mass media can be traced back to the days when dramas were performed in various ancient cultures. This was the first time when a form of media was "broadcast" to a wider audience. The first dated printed book known is the "Diamond Sutra", printed in China in 868 AD, although it is clear that books were printed earlier. Movable clay type was invented in 1041 in China. However, due to the slow spread of literacy to the masses in China, and the relatively high cost of paper there, the earliest printed mass-medium was probably European popular prints from about 1400. Although these were produced in huge numbers, very few early examples survive, and even most known to be printed before about 1600 have not survived. The term "mass media" was coined with the creation of print media,
which is notable for being the first example of mass media, as we use the term today. This form of media started in Europe in the middle Ages. Johannes Gutenberg's invention of the printing press allowed the mass production of books to sweep the nation. He printed the first book on a printing press with movable type in 1453. The Gutenberg Bible, one of the books he published, was translated into many different languages and printed throughout the continent. The invention of the printing press in the late 15th century gave rise to some of the first forms of mass communication, by enabling the publication of books and newspapers on a scale much larger than was previously possible.

1.5 NEW AGE MEDIA (DIGITAL MEDIA)
Internet
The Internet (also known simply as "the Net" or less precisely as "the Web") is a more interactive medium of mass media, and can be briefly described as "a network of networks". Specifically, it is the worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It consists of millions of smaller domestic,
academic, business, and governmental networks, which together carry various information and services,such as e-mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web.Contrary to some common usage, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not synonymous: the Internet is the system of interconnected computer networks, linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables,
wireless connections etc.; the Web is the contents, or the interconnected documents, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. The World Wide Web is accessible through the Internet, along with many other services including e-mail, file sharing and others described below.Toward the end of the 20th century, the advent of the World Wide Web marked the first era in which most individuals could have a means of exposure on a scale comparable to that of mass media. Anyone with a web site has the potential to address a global audience, although serving to high levels of web traffic is still relatively expensive. It is possible that the rise of peer-to-peer technologies may have begun the process of making the cost of bandwidth manageable. Although a vast amount of information, imagery, and commentary (i.e. "content") has been made available, it is often difficult to determine the authenticity and reliability of information contained in web pages (in many cases, self-published). The
invention of the Internet has also allowed breaking news stories to reach around the globe within minutes. This rapid growth of instantaneous, decentralized communication is often deemed likely to change mass media and its relationship to society.
"Cross-media" means the idea of distributing the same message through different media channels. A similar idea is expressed in the news industry as "convergence". Many authors understand cross-media publishing to be the ability to publish in both print and on the web without manual conversion effort. An increasing number of wireless devices with mutually incompatible data and screen formats make it even more difficult to achieve the objective ―create once, publish many.The Internet is quickly becoming the center of mass media. Everything is becoming accessible via the internet. Instead of picking up a newspaper, or watching the 10 o'clock news, people can log onto the
internet to get the news they want, when they want it. For example, many workers listen to the radiothrough the Internet  while sitting at their desk. Even the education system relies on the Internet.Teachers can contact the entire class by sending one e-mail. They may have web pages where students can get another copy of the class outline or assignments. Some classes have class blogs in which students are required to post weekly, with students graded on their contributions.

Blogs (Web Logs)
Blogging, too, has become a pervasive form of media. A blog is a website, usually maintained by an individual, with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or interactive media such as images or video. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse chronological order, with most recent posts shown on top. Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject; others function as more personal online diaries. A typical blog combines text, images and other graphics, and links to other blogs, web pages, and related media. The ability for readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs. Most blogs are primarily textual, although some focus on art (art log), photographs (photo blog), sketch blog, videos (v log), music (MP3 blog), audio (podcasting) are part of a wider network of social media. Micro blogging is another type of blogging which consists of blogs with very short posts.

RSS Feeds
RSS is a format for syndicating news and the content of news-like sites, including major news sites like Wired, news-oriented community sites like Slashdot, and personal blogs. It is a family of Web feed formats used to publish frequently updated content such as blog entries, news headlines, and podcasts.An RSS document (which is called a "feed" or "web feed" or "channel") contains either a summary of content from an associated web site or the full text. RSS makes it possible for people to keep up with
web sites in an automated manner that can be piped into special programs or filtered displays.

Podcast
A podcast is a series of digital-media files which are distributed over the Internet using syndication feeds for playback on portable media players and computers. The term podcast, like broadcast, can refer either to the series of content itself or to the method by which it is syndicated; the latter is also called podcasting. The host or author of a podcast is often called a podcaster.

Mobile
Mobile phones were introduced in Japan in 1979 but became a mass media only in 1998 when the first downloadable ringing tones were introduced in Finland. Soon most forms of media content were introduced on mobile phones, and today the total value of media consumed on mobile towers over that of internet content, and was worth over 31 billion dollars in 2007 (source Informa). The mobile media content includes over 8 billion dollars worth of mobile music (ringing tones, ring back tones, true tones,
MP3 files, karaoke, music videos, music streaming services etc.); over 5 billion dollars worth of mobile gaming; and various news, entertainment and advertising services. In Japan mobile phone books are so popular that five of the ten best-selling printed books were originally released as mobile phone books.
Similar to the internet, mobile is also an interactive media, but has far wider reach, with 3.3 billion mobile phone users at the end of 2007 to 1.3 billion internet users (source ITU). Like email on the internet, the top application on mobile is also a personal messaging service, but SMS text messaging is used by over 2.4 billion people. Practically all internet services and applications exist or have similar cousins on mobile, from search to multiplayer games to virtual worlds to blogs. Mobile has several
unique benefits which many mobile media pundits claim make mobile a more powerful media than either TV or the internet, starting with mobile being permanently carried and always connected. Mobile has the best audience accuracy and is the only mass media with a built-in payment channel available to every user without any credit cards or PayPal accounts or even an age limit. Mobile is often called the 7th Mass Medium and either the fourth screen (if counting cinema, TV and PC screens) or the third screen (counting only TV and PC).

PRINT MEDIA
Book
A book is a collection of sheets of paper, parchment or other material with a piece of text written on them, bound together along one edge within covers. A book is also a literary work or a main division of such a work. A book produced in electronic format is known as an e-book.
Magazine
A magazine is a periodical publication containing a variety of articles, generally financed by advertising and/or purchase by readers.Magazines are typically published weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly, with a date on the cover that is in advance of the date it is actually published. They are often printed in color on coated paper, and are bound with a soft cover.
Magazines fall into two broad categories: consumer magazines and business magazines. In practice,magazines are a subset of periodicals, distinct from those periodicals produced by scientific, artistic,academic or special interest publishers which are subscription-only, more expensive, narrowly limited in circulation, and often have little or no advertising.Magazines can be classified as:
1- General interest magazines (e.g. Frontline, India Today, The Week, The Sunday Times etc.)
2- Special interest magazines (women's, sports, business, scuba diving, etc.)

Newspaper
A newspaper is a publication containing news and information and advertising, usually printed on lowcost paper called newsprint. It may be general or special interest, most often published daily or weekly.The first printed newspaper was published in 1605, and the form has thrived even in the face of
competition from technologies such as radio and television. Recent developments on the Internet are posing major threats to its business model, however. Paid circulation is declining in most countries, and advertising revenue, which makes up the bulk of a newspaper's income, is shifting from print to online;some commentators, nevertheless, point out that historically new media such as radio and television did not entirely supplant existing.

OUTDOOR MEDIA
Outdoor media is a form of mass media which comprises billboards, signs, placards placed inside and outside of commercial buildings/objects like shops/buses, flying billboards (signs in tow of airplanes),blimps, and skywriting. Many commercial advertisers use this form of mass media when advertising in sports stadiums. Tobacco and alcohol manufacturers used billboards and other outdoor media
extensively. However, in 1998, the Master Settlement Agreement between the US and the tobacco industries prohibited the billboard advertising of cigarettes. In a 1994 Chicago-based study, Diana Hackbarth and her colleagues revealed how tobacco- and alcohol-based billboards were concentrated in
poor neighborhoods. In other urban centers, alcohol and tobacco billboards were much more concentrated in African-American neighborhoods than in white neighborhoods.[5]

PERSONAL MEDIA
Non-mass or "personal" media (point-to-point and person-to-person communication) can include:Gestures.
1-Letter
2-Telephony

PRESS FREEDOM AROUND THE WORLD
In October 2007, Reporters Sans Frontiers (Reporters without Borders or RSF) published their 2007 worldwide press freedom index. The results were interesting:On the whole, it showed that democracies ranked best, as expected. (The top position was jointly held by North European nations: Iceland and Norway. Estonia, Slovakia and Belgium made up the top 5.)Totalitarian and communist regimes ranked worst because there was next to no press freedom as in almost all such cases, the media is government controlled. (The worst 5 were Cuba, Iran, Turkmenistan,North Korea and Eritrea.) But there were a few findings that may surprise some:Canada and Germany where the highest ranking G8 rich countries, but only ranked 18th and 20th,respectively, split by Trinidad and Tobago;

1-UK ranked just 24th, only slightly up from 27th the previous year;
2-France ranked just 31st, only slightly up from 35th, in the previous year;
3-Span (33rd), Italy (35th) and Japan (37th) all rose a little bit but also do not rank that highly as
expected
4-The US ranked just 48th. While this was up from 2006 (53rd), in 2005, they ranked 44th, and in 2004,
they ranked 22nd which were not that good, anyway;
5-Russia ranked just 144th.
6-New Zealand (15th), Canada (18th), and Trinidad and Tobago (19th) were the only 3 in the top 20 that were from outside Europe.RSF‘s 2006 worldwide press freedom index is also online. You can also see RSF‘s 2005 worldwide press freedom index to compare. And you can also see RSF‘s 2004 worldwide press freedom index to compare.Some have commented in the past that various freedoms and democratic principles etc come after a
nation has been able to increase its prosperity. But, as Reporters Sans Frontiers has shown each year,poor countries can be respective of press freedoms. You can find more information from their web site which also includes information and details of all country rankings. The chart below is also from Reporters Sans Frontiers depicting press freedom across nations.Of course, press freedom is just one amongst many, many variables that would indicate a healthy democracy, but it is one of a number of variables to indicate a healthy and diverse media, which itself is
an integral component to a functioning democracy. But even with a fairly free press, problems of political and other influences can still be a big factor in the quality of the media. And this impacts the media in industrialized countries, as well as in poorer countries. For example, Reporters Sans Frontiers also reports that after the September 11 atrocity, the media in the U.S. was torn by ―the pull of patriotism and self-censorship such that the diversity of media coverage was affected

1.6 MEDIA AND GLOBALIZATION
In a world of increasing globalization, the media has much potential. It has the possibility of spreading information to places where in the past it has been difficult to get diverse views. It has the potential to contribute to democratic processes and influences especially on countries and regimes that are not
democratic. On the negative side though, it also has the ability to push the ideas and cultures of more dominant interest.
The phenomenon of ―cultural imperialism raises concerns in many countries where people fear that their culture gets diluted or given a back seat to the demands of large media and corporate interests in the name of globalization, where products and imagery, mainly from the west, make it into the televisions and homes of people. The fear of many people is that if people around the world are molded into model consumers, following a western standard, then it is easier for large companies to sell their
products and know their buyer‘s habits etc, while eroding local cultures and traditions. There is often extensive debate as to how likely this will be, whether local cultures and traditions will exert their influence on local forms of globalization, or if there will be more extremist backlash. In different parts of the world, many of these and other reactions are already seen.The phenomenon of ―cultural imperialism‖ raises concerns in many countries where people fear that their culture gets diluted or given a back seat to the demands of large media and corporate interests in
the name of globalization, where products and imagery, mainly from the west, make it into the televisions and homes of people. The fear of many people is that if people around the world are molded into model consumers, following a western standard, then it is easier for large companies to sell their products and know their buyer‘s habits etc, while eroding local cultures and traditions. There is often extensive debate as to how likely this will be, whether local cultures and traditions will exert their
influence on local forms of globalization, or if there will be more extremist backlash. In different parts of the world, many of these and other reactions are already seen.

1.7 IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON WORLD
Different people define globalization differently. Some define it as a set of processes changing the nature of human interaction across a wide range of spheres including the economic, political, social,technological, and environmental. Furthermore, it is perceived as the process of integration of the world community into a common system either economic or social. It essentially means the growing increase in the interconnectedness and interdependences among the worlds regions, nations, governments,business and institutions. Some others say, it is a process, which engenders free flow of ideas, people,goods, services and capital thereby fostering integration of economies and societies. The most visible aspect of globalization is the spread of information and communication technologies. The advance in technology has made available computer equipment, facsimile machines, telex systems, and satellite communications, to name a few. The advent of newspapers, television, and radio and internet haven immensely helped in the spread to information and has also helped bring people from different parts of the world in contact with each other. Although they have their own disadvantages, the advantages are many more.
Earlier to communicate, people use to write letters send them through post or through other mediums.No city had any idea of what was going on in their neighboring city. The press media was the first breakthrough. The beginning of the Press media was seen after the information revolution. The press became an active participant in the tasks of promoting, projecting, and supporting the process.Globalization has assisted in networking among journalists; and these facilities have revolutionized news, printing, editing and reportage. More importantly it has aided considerably in news circulation.Generally speaking, globalization has made possible adequate and timely processing and dissemination
of information. As the costs of worldwide communication had decreased, nearly everyone in a news organization is able to get access to international news. A wide coverage of international print media output, could be read on the domestic grounds. News and features that were previously being suppressed became worldwide knowledge. For example: earlier when a rape had been committed, no one would have known but today the press has helped oppose and expose almost all crimes committed,
and people are becoming more and more aware of what is happening around the city. The press has been stimulating political parties and candidates out of their shells and exposes their programs to public scrutiny. The press has been playing its traditional role of informing and educating citizens on political
parties, sport events, glamorous celebrity gossip, and international happenings.After the press media, came the discovery of the radio and the television. The advent of radio and
television networks emerging in the early 20th century received a number of viewers. It appealed to another sense, for the press we could only read, but television and radio had audio video effects which was more attractive for the consumers. Television and radio could be used to address illiterate people also, because it was made available in different languages and the audience need not be literate to be able to read. Earlier television started with only a few channels, showing cable, but today there are over
200 channels screening 200 different things. Today, you can view channels from across the nation which helps you get an idea of the lifestyle and culture of the westernized nations. In China, English is taught through radio and television. Therefore watching television and hearing radio is also a learning process for many. On news channels one can view the happenings of other countries, the climate there,the problems they are facing, and also the kind of soap operas made there, the cinema they watch, and everything that helps us understand the people in other countries. For example, India represents immensely attractive markets to the major corporations that provide television program content and services across borders and regions. Also, the advertising industry has used television and radio as a medium to very effectively expose global products daily to its audience. They have the advantage of video and audio facilities so then can effectively advertise on television and radio. But this also has its own disadvantage, the value for that advertising slot on television or radio is proportional to the number of viewers or listeners it reaches, which is massive. But on the whole, considering the setbacks, television has proved to be a very effective form for entertainment, for advertising, for sharing cross cultural values and for educating. 'Dallas', 'Dynasty', 'Ellen' and 'Married With Children', and 'Golden
Girls', 'X-Files', 'Startreck', 'the Simpsons', all are examples of universally distributed programs on TV.Radio is also another helpful form of entertainment. It also comes in very handy during traffic jams,floods, or any other important happening. Today every house has a radio, be it the rich or the poor.Therefore, when needed to reach the mass audience together, we have the radio. It is only recently, with the coming up of many channels, that people have started listening to the radio.Besides the inventions of newspapers, television and radio, over the years we have also come to see a completely diverse form of cinema. It started of when cameras had come in. At first there were silent
movies being made and then with the advent to video they started making longer movies with different genres. In India cinema started at a much later stage. At first we use to have live dramas being performed by artists. Then ―Bollywood‖


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