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History of Kaduna Polytechnic
Kaduna Polytechnic is one of the earliest polytechnic in Nigeria, located at Tudun Wada area of Kaduna south local government of Kaduna state, North-Western Nigeria. It was established in 1956 as Kaduna Technical institute after the British Government accepted the upgrading of Yaba Higher Collage (now Yaba Collage of Technology) to a technical institute and also proposed the establishment of technical institute in Kaduna and Enugu through the recommendation of Higher Education Commission. The polytechnic offers National Diploma and Higher National Diploma courses at the undergraduate level.
1.1 Background to the Study
The mass media, most especially television have gradually become a part of our daily lives, and sources of information, education and entertainment have been described as the primary functions of the media. Lasswell (1948) as cited in Folarin (2005, p.74) assigns three functions to the media:
i. Surveillance of the Environment (the news function).
ii. Correlation of the different parts of the Environment (the editorial function).
iii. Transmission of the cultural heritage from one generation to the other (the cultural transmission function).
The focus of the researcher in this study is not only on the entertainment function of the media, but the role the entertainment media especially television, plays in shaping social behavior among teenagers in the society. Stephenson (1967) a British psychologist, as cited in Folarin (2005, p.170), divides man’s activities into work and play. The former involving reality and production, while the latter deals with entertainment, relaxation or self-satisfaction. He further says that people use mass communication more as play than as work, more for pleasure and entertainment than for information and serious work. Folarin (ibid) corroborates this view by saying that one constant criticism of television in Nigeria is that its focus on entertainment rather than on development purposes.
There is no doubt that the impact of the media on young people’s lives is broadly considered within what is referred to as “media effects” debate which to a great extent focuses on the potentially negative impact of the media on young people’s lives: video violence, gambling, educational performance, mass consumerism, etc. (Miles, 2000). Steele & Brown (1995) identify three main reasons why media influence should be given a closer look:
1. Young people spend more time with the mass media than they do in school or with their parents.
2. The media are full of portrayals that glamorize risky adult behavior such as excessive drinking and sexual promiscuity.
3. Parents and other socialization agents have arguably shirked their responsibilities when it comes to directing youth away from risky forms of behavior; thereby allowing the media a more fundamental influence.
In the context of this discourse, many commentators opine that by the age of 18, an individual will have spent more time watching television than any other activity besides sleep (Miles & Anderson, 1999). However, Miles (2000, p.73) is of the view that:
It is widely assumed that young people are affected more directly and negatively by the media than any other age group, research actually indicates that young people between the ages of 14 and 24 actually form one of the groups who currently spend the least time watching television. This is a paradox that has often been neglected in the literature. Ironically, the mass media itself has a vested interest in exaggerating the impact it has on young people’s lives because media-hype simply makes good ‘copy.’
Regardless of the actual time young people spend in watching television and using other media, there is no doubt that the mass media have played and will continue to play an important role in structuring young people’s lives in some shape and form in a period of rapid social change (Miles, ibid).
“Television, like books are culturally special medium…an important medium of cultural transmission (Baran, 2009:75). Studies show that television contributes to the socialization and the transmission of culture (Baran, 2009; Daramola, 2007).Therefore, television is a powerful instrument that can build or destroy people’s culture due to its conversational nature. It also plays a role in the daily lives of men and women in the way they perceive and conceived themselves and in the way they conduct their own lives (Aldana, 2004:1) .A lot of researches, most especially in enveloped countries suggest that visual media (e.g Television) influence a range of attitudes and behaviors among youths. Scholars such as Hussmann and Taylor(2003) are of the view that television has authority over young people’s decision. They assert that “Youths just accept what the television tells them without question”. In contribution, Baran (2009) opines that “television technology is but a double age sword that has the power of doing good and evil to anybody exposed to it”.
Keyes (2000:1) raised fears about the negative influence that the media have on youth culture. “Youths are particularly vulnerable to outside influence from their television sets because their values and ideals have not yet fully developed”. Thus they are prone to alteration by any slightest means. Chari (2005) says “their world is erected by the stories they hear, see and tell. Television plays significant role in this process, hence the importance of who should determine what should shape people’s perception and how”. Television in terms of fashion has influenced the youths, thereby making them believe in a particular way of dressing. The kind of clothes used in acting, stage music, advertisement are presented to the society as the best dressing to make one look good. Mangwereetal (2013) supports this, stating that “television are some of the factors that today affects the way teenagers (youths) dress, talk, walk and even influence the type of music or food they want. Besides being influenced by the characters on television, youths are also prone to be influence by the presenters of the programme (Boone, & Lomore, 2001).By implication, youths absorb this movie contents without restraint or second that have influence on the viewers, mostly, their mode of dressing. Television holds a very special place in the culture of a people. “Television, like books are culturally special medium…an important medium of cultural transmission (Baran, 2009:75). Studies show that television contributes to the socialization and the Transmission of culture (Baran, 2009; Daramola, 2007).Therefore, television is a powerful instrument that can build or destroy people’s culture due to its conversational nature. It also plays a role in the daily lives of men and women in the way they perceive and conceived themselves and in the way they conduct their own lives (Aldana, 2004:1).A lot of researches, most especially in developed countries suggest that visual media (e.g Television) influence a range of attitudes and behaviors among youths. Scholars such as Hussmann and Taylor (2003) are of the view that television has authority over young people’s decision. They assert that “youths just accept what the television tells them without question”.
History of Fashion
The history of clothing is very old; it started since the era of Adam and Eva. The style of body covering is change in each period, this changing become fashion. In the beginning of 20 the century, after the invention of sewing machine and other technologies the clothes appear in new form (Wikipedia, n.d.). After the concept of fashion took places it provide a way for promoting something new, which doesn’t exist before form it or which comes with something new or unusual dresses. It is generating its effects since the first fashion show was held in history. Now a day, every one can see fashion shows staying at home through TV channels; it not only grabs the attention of women but also drawn the attention of girls towards the fashion shows and made them fashion conscious. According to Wikipedia (n.d.) fashion shows introduced designers and brands of apparel.
Fashion is something that we deal with every day in our life. In general fashion is a term for a popular style or practice, especially in clothing, footwear, accessories, makeup, body piercing, or furniture. Fashion is something that is always changing and one can find a lot of changes in fashion since its evolution in the history. Fashion refers to a distinctive and often habitual trend in the style with which a person dresses, as well as to prevailing styles in behavior. Fashion in general sense is promoted by the way celebrities dress. These may include popular pop stars, film-stars or sports person. People generally follow the latest style statement adopted by these celebrities. Fashion also refers to the newest creations of textile designers. The more technical term, costume, has become so linked to the term "fashion" that the use of the former has been relegated to special senses like fancy dress or masquerade wear, while "fashion" means clothing more generally and the study of it. Although aspects of fashion can be feminine or masculine, some trends are androgynous. Fashion has entered our lives and taken a very important spot in our lives. There was a time when the concept of fashion was only in the occasions. Though, it would be pointless to compare the present generation with our generation, but today fashion has become an important part of our lives. But there is a very clear difference between the present and the older generation. Fashion has strongly taken up even in the lives of school students. The bags they carry, the watches they wear and the way they carry themselves involve so much of fashion. These days’ students are more conscious about fashion rather than their studies. The teenagers seem to be more fashionable than the adults now. In fact they can be good trendsetters themselves. Fashion is always changing like the wind, which makes it difficult for the common man to keep pace with the latest fashion but still fashion is the key word for today's teenagers, hence there are many teens that invent their own styles and aim at becoming an icon among their groups.
Fashion is a non-verbal form of communication that conveys a lot about your personality. Earlier, fashion was something that used to be found only among the affluent class of people. But now the times have changed. These days class doesn't matter in any way on the road to becoming fashionable. In fact, everybody is fashionable these days. Fashion not only embraces clothing or make-up but in a broader sense also includes the accessory that you carry and the way you carry yourself and your attitude plays a major role in the way you practice fashion. Fashion and the fashion industry can be important and inspirational to people in all walks of life, especially students. There is no problem in following the latest Fashion and looking attractive. On the other hand, getting too involved in fashion and clothing when your time would be best spent studying is an obvious danger. Hence you need to balance in yourself accordingly.
1.2 Statement of Problem
It cannot be over emphasized that the television media have taken a center stage in our daily activities especially in the 21st Century with the emergence and consolidation of different television stations and service providers. It has been observed in cities that satellite and cable television stations have a greater amount of audience than the local television stations (Wakefield, Flay, Nichter & Giovino, 2003). It has also been observed that television play the role of the media in influencing trajectories of youth smoking (Wakefield et al., 2003).
However, this study wants to examine the role television, with particular attention on entertainment television, plays in shaping social behavior among youths. It is evident through previous researches that with ample television stations at their fingertips these young people spend more time watching television. A conservative estimate has being given of an average American teenager who spends two to five hours per day watching television. The young people spend an average of 16-18 hours watching television per week, starting from the age 2 and over half of all 15-16 year olds have seen the majority of the most popular recent R-rated movies (Wakefield, et al, 2003).
Furthermore, from previous researches carried out on the effects of television on teenagers, it has been discovered that most of the programs teenagers watch are entertainment-related, for instance movies, fashion shows, musical videos, soap operas, etc. The influence of these programs on teenagers may not be immediate or out rightly effective due to some other variables like family, social group, peer group, etc. Nevertheless, the influence might be insidious and lead the teenagers to building false ideals and negative social behavior. The more they expose themselves to entertainment television with reference to the amount of time some of them put into watching entertainment programs, the greater the chance for them to develop a world view and a perception of reality similar to what they watch over time on entertainment television (Wakefield, et al, 2003). In addition this study intends to examine the difference between the impact television fashion shows have on male and female students. Previous research has rarely taking this comparative study. From the statement of problem above the following will purse the research questions. Therefore, this study attempts to examine whether the entertainment television programs shape to a large extent the social behavior of the students. Furthermore, previous studies have often conceived fashion as indivisible outfits without attempting to identify the various component of fashion. This study seeks to examine the various component of fashion style with a view to examine the relative impact of each of the component of the fashion style as viewed in the television fashion shows by (CASSS) students.
1.3 Research Question
RQ1: Do (CASSS) students watch television fashion show?
RQ2. What is the level of viewership of television fashion shows among CASSS students?
RQ3: what is the impact of television fashion show on the fashion styles of CASSS students?
RQ4. What do students pay attention to in television fashion show programs they watch?
BASED ON THE RESEACH QUESTIONS ABOVE, THE FOLLOWING RESEARCH OBEJECTIVES WILL BE PURSUED
1.4 Objective of the Study
1. To examine if student of (CASSS) watch television fashion show.
2. To determine the level of viewership of television fashion show among CASSS students.
3. To examine the impact television fashion show has on students fashion styles in CASSS.
4. To identify what students pay attention to in television fashion shows programs they watch.
1.5 Significance of the Study
It has been observed in recent times that the entertainment industry in Nigeria is blossoming especially in its dominance in the contents of the programming of most television stations in Nigeria, especially the major cities (Lagos, Abuja, Port Harcourt, etc). Therefore, this study seeks to draw the attention of media practitioners and owners (especially television) to the vital role television plays as an agent of socialization. Having this fact in mind, television media practioners and owners will be mindful of the kind of entertainment programs they air. The aim of the study is to research the impact of Television fashion show on student dressing pattern with reference to (CASSS). This study has not been conducted before. Through this research, the findings will reveal how television fashion shows shapes the social behavior of students whether positively or negatively especially in television media studies. This is a contemporary issue which scholars in the field of media studies have paid little or no attention to. Therefore, it does not only aim at contributing to knowledge but also providing a foundational basis for further studies into the socialization role of entertainment television.
BASED ON THE RESEACH QUESTION ABOVE THE FOLLOWING RESEARCH OBEJECTIVE WILL BE PURSUED
1.6 Scope of the Study
The respondents for this study is restricted to 18-35 year olds at the first year and final level at Kaduna polytechnic CASSS was selected because at the point of entry; most of the students fall within the age bracket needed for the study. Then, the students at this level could easily and appropriately answer the questions in the questionnaire, and also, they have energy needed to power the TV sets, so they are exposed to the core variable.
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