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The study investigated Television Advertising and Uniuyo Undergraduate Students Purchasing Preference for Indomie Noodles. Two hundred and fifty undergraduates were recruited as participants in the present study from University of Uyo consisting of 110 males and 140 females. Their age range range were from 16- 45 and their mean age was 38.5. A cross sectional design was adopted for the study. A questionnaire was used to retrieve information from the participants. To ascertain whether television advertisement influence Uniuyo students’ purchasing preference for Indomie Noodles, to examine other factors that influences Uniuyo student’s purchasing preference for indomie Noodles, to determine the group of gender that television advertisement influence most. t to find out whether students of uniuyo are exposed to television advertisement in Indomie noodles. The result showed that television advertising significantly influences Uniuyo students’ purchasing preference. The result also revealed that other factors like the price at which the noodles is sold also influences Uniuyo student’s purchasing preference. The result also revealed that gender also influences the way Uniuyo sudent respond to television advertising. The result also revealed that the duration of time Uniuyo students are exposed to television advertising influences their buying preferences for Indomie noodles. It was therefore concluded generally that television advertisement significantly influences Uniuyo students purchasing preference for Indomie Noodles. Implications and recommendations for future study were made.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page - - - - - - - - - - i
Declaration - - - - - - - - - - ii
Certification - - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgements - - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - vi Table of Contents - - - - - - - - - vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study - - - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - - - 4
1.3 Objective of the Study - - - - - - - 6
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - - 6
1.5 Significance of the study - - - - - - - 6
1.6 Definition Of Terms - - - - - - - - 7
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Review Of Concept - - - - - - - 9
2.1.1 The Concept Of Television Advertisement - - - -- 9
2.1.2 Advertising Effectiveness - - - - - - 10
2.1.3 The Concepts Of Consumer Behaviour - - - - 15
2.1.4 The Model of Consumer Buying Behaviour - - - 18
2.1.5 Consumer Patronage of Noodles - - - - - - 20
2.1.6 Factors That Determine Consumer Preferences - - - 21
2.2 Review Of Opinion - - - - - - - 24
2.3 Review Of Studies - - - - - - - 27
2.3.1 Study 1: Jolodar & Ansari (2011) - Television advertisement and consumer purchasing behaviour - - - - - - - - - 27
2.3.2 Study 2: McGrath and Mahood (2004) - Television Advertising as a predictor of consumer preferences - - - 28
2.4 Theoretical framework - - - - - - - 29
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design - - - - - - - - 34
3.2 Research Setting - - - - - - - - 34
3.3 Research Participants - - - - - - - - 35
3.4 Sampling Technique - - - - - - - - 35
3.5 Validity and Reliability of Instrument - - - - - - 35
3.6 Method of data collection - - - - - - - - 36
3.7 Statistics Analysis - - - - - - - - - 36
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT
4.1 Data Presentation, Analysis And Interpretation - - - - 37
4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data - - - - - 37
4.3 Discussion Of Findings - - - - - - - - 41
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary/Conclusion - - 44
5.2 Limitations- - - - - - - - - 45
5.3Recommendations - - - - -- - - 45
1.0 Background of the study
Advertising is a marketing concept which aims to influence the buying behavior of customers. Whereas consumer behavior is the process and activity by which people select, purchase, evaluate and consume the product or service to satisfy the need or want (Guolla, 2011). In olden times marketers used different signs and symbols to market their products and also to create awareness for the customers. With the advancement and technology development now organizations focus to use print and electronic media excessively. Use of different marketing promotional strategies has been identified as an effective tool of creating awareness among the consumer population. Among them is popular celebrity attachment with the particular brand. In developing countries where majority of the population live in remote areas; the effects of Television (TV) advertisement are very much high. In these areas TV advertisement enhances the satisfaction level of those products and they prefer to buy that one (Vinod Kumar Bishnoi, 2009).
Advertising is simply serves as a creative form of communication; a friendly conversation requiring a response, even with emotion from time to time which engage the consumer in the message. It is a message, generally influential in nature, but not intended to be forceful or immediate. Advertising is considered a positive institution, creating awareness about products and services. While at the same time it is considered a key practice in encouraging consumers to spend money on goods, they otherwise would not purchase, if they had not heard the persistent message conveyed in the advertisement. Advertising plays a prominent role in selling goods and services. Consumers sit in front of the television in the hope of catching some of their favourite spots. Television is often called "king" of the advertising media, since a majority of people spend more hours watching TV per day in comparison to any other medium. Television uses the combination of sight, color, sound and motion to create an effect. TV has proved its credible power in influencing human behavior repeatedly. The Television Advertisement is a form of advertising in which goods, services, organizations, ideas, etc. are promoted via the medium of television. Advertising on television can give a product or service instant reliability and reputation.
As a promotional strategy, advertising serves as a major tool in creating product awareness in the mind of a potential consumer to take eventual purchase decision. Advertising, sales promotion and public relations are mass-communication tools available to marketers. Advertising through all mediums influence audiences, but television is one of the strongest medium of advertising and due to its mass reach; it can influence not only the individual’s attitude, behavior, life style, exposure and in the long run, even the culture of the country. The evolution of advertisement dates back into the ancient times. Societies used symbols, and pictorial signs to attract their product users. Over centuries, these elements were used for promotion of products. In the early ages, these were handmade and were produced at limited scale for promotions. Later on, this phenomenon gained strength more intensively for promotional purposes. Today’s modern environment, advertisements have become one of the major sources of communicational tool between the manufacturer and the user of the products. A company cannot make dream to be a well-known brand until they invests in their promotional activities, for which consumer market have been dominating through advertisements. As the primary mission of advertiser is to reach prospective customers and influence their awareness, attitudes and buying behavior. They spend a lot of money to keep individual’s interest in their products. They need to understand what makes potential customers behave the way they would like. It also appears that advertising may have the potential to contribute to brand choice among consumers. The major aim of advertising is to impact on buying behavior; however, this impact about brand is changed or strengthened frequently in people’s memories. Memories about the brand consist of those associations that are related to brand name in consumer mind. These brand cognition influence consideration, evaluation, and finally purchases. The principal aim of consumer behavior analysis is to explain why consumers act in particular ways under certain circumstances. It tries to determine the factors that influence consumer behavior, especially the economic, social and psychological aspects. When young people choose advertising information and characters as their role models, they may not only identify with them but also intend to copy them in terms of how they dress and what they are going to buy.
Numerous studies have examined the effectiveness of advertising in the past decade. The common measures of advertising effectiveness include ad recall, ad recognition, brand awareness, clicks or click through rate, attitude towards the ad and the brand, and purchase consideration. Of these common measures, attitudes toward the advertising, clicks on advertising, and ability to recall advertising are the focus of the present study. The effectiveness of these three measures was assessed by their ability to predict purchase decision. Advertising, sales promotion and public relations are mass-communication tools available to marketers. As its name suggests, mass communication uses the same message for everyone in an audience. Today, definitions of advertising abound. We might define it as communication process, a marketing process, an economic and social process, a public relations process or information and persuasion process viewed advertising from its functional perspectives, hence they define it as a paid, non-personal communication through various media by business firms, non-profit organization, and individuals who are in some way identified in the advertising message and who hope to inform or persuade members of a particular audience is of the opinion that advertising is used to establish a basic awareness of the product or service in the mind of the potential customer and to build up knowledge about it. Technology advancement had not given us new products and services, but they had changed the meaning of many words. With increase in mass media, advertising effectiveness, as more traditional mass media, had reduced. Now advertiser is looking for new and presumably less cluttered media. The current age of digital media had given consumer choices to opt in and opt out of marketing messages and advertising. Consumers are getting more control of what they want and when they want. All these things are moving toward the interactive marketing.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Advertising, sales promotion and public relations are mass-communication tools available to marketers. As its name suggests, mass communication uses the same message for everyone in an audience. The mass communication tools trade off the advantage of personal selling, the opportunity to tailor a message to each prospect, for the advantage of reaching many people at a lower cost per person (Etzel , 1997). Morden (1991) is of the opinion that advertising is used to establish a basic awareness of the product or service in the mind of the potential customer and to build up knowledge about it.
Advertising is always present, though some people may not be aware of it. In today’s word, advertising uses every possible media to get its message through. Advertisement promotes products and services to the public. It aids consumers to know various products available in the market and the quality of such production.
Ayanwale, Alimi andAyanbimipe (2005) are of the opinion that “advertising is used to establish a basic awareness of the product or service in the mind of the potential customer and to build up knowledge about it”. Clark (2013) says that although television advertisements and product placements introduce viewers to products or act as a reminder, many times customers make their purchase through another medium. Akpoyomare, Adeosun and Ganiyu (2012) are of the opinion that product attributes also influence the purchase decision of consumers.
Some researchers also found out that television advertisements create product awareness, brand knowledge, as well as intention to purchase. According to Pandey (2011), “television advertisements usually play a role in introducing a product, reinforcing familiarity to the product and also emphasizing how realistic it is to purchase the product”. In Nigeria today, since the announcement of the Mobile Number Portability by the Nigerian Communications Commission, television advertising for mobile network services has gone viral with attention-grabbing tricks such as attractive and lovely music, lyrics, jingles, humour, funny characters, repeated messages, slogans, celebrities, drama, choreography and animation. Although all these features attract the attention of the audience, do they influence the decision to buy mobile products and services or just to entertain consumers? In Nigeria, they are many brands of Indomie noodles such as Super Pack, MeeMee, Chicken Noodles, etc, and all these brands have been running adverts incessantly wooing consumers to eat their products. The question to be answered is, do these advertisements influence the decision of consumers to purchase these products and also to opt for their services?
Furthermore, advertisement rate are exorbitant and the financial means with which to advertise goods, products and services is not easy to come-by if the identifiable sponsors of advertisement most pay heavily for the commodity, is it not wise then that they choose the most efficient media or tool to do the job of advertising.
Hence, this study seeks to assess the television advertisement and Uniuyo students’ purchasing preference for Indomie Noodles.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To ascertain whether television advertisement influence Uniuyo students’ purchasing preference for Indomie Noodles.
2. To examine other factors that influences Uniuyo student’s purchasing preference for indomie Noodles.
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