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Background of the study
The media and advertising as separate institutions have a unique symbiotic relationship. Dating back to the history of the “Print Media in Nigeria, the Lagos weekly record by John Jackson was able to survive until late eighteen century in the face of low patronage, readership, amateurism, and stiff competition that characterized the early print media in Nigeria because of government adverts placed in it. This 150 points a year advertisement gave the weekly record about 400 pounds in 1900 the (Fred Omu) (Fed Omu, 1978: 1933). Today, the trend is still the same. The media men and advertising practitioners cannot still cope without each other. On the hand, there is no way the advertiser can send his message across without the use of the media. There are lots of other gains to be derived from the media advertising relations which this paper intends the explore to my capability. In the mean time, it is relevant to induced at this point a brief definitions of the basic institutions on which lies the care of this research project, as their importance. The media on one hand is associated with mass communication. The media being the medium for mass communication, and mass communication which involves comminuting with a mass audience or a large number of people at a particular time (Nwosu 1987). Although the use of a mass medium or a combination of media is not mentioning it is an essential need in mass communication. Adverting on the other hand, has, many definitions “based on individual understanding, what advertising is (Nwosu , 1999). He believes the best definition of advertising is that “it is mass communication which is aimed amend at helping to sell goods services, idea, persons”. This definition apparently point out that advertising and media have a lot in common. Here is becomes necessary to examine the extent of the commonalties, and chiefly the ways advertisement is indispensable to the media survived. However, it could not be rule out the fact that there are some basic differences that are not covered by theme of this research project. In viewing this study on the side of the broadcast media in Nigeria, the case is still almost the same. Time has actually passed when the Nigerian broadcast stations were been supported solely by government funds. But the begging of the depression, advertising revenue from the sales of time and programmes has become from the sales of time and programmes has become a viral sources of income for broadcast media in Nigeria. Hence the 100% government owned broadcast media have gone particularly or full commercial. Lastly, this study would be based on a study of prominent newspapers and broadcast stations. For better understating of this topic. It is however, pertinent to outline a brief history of the media and how it relates to advertising.
THE HISTORY OF THE MEDIA
The media in Nigeria started as early as 1854 when a publication. IWE IROHN was established by revered gentlemen Henry Town send. At that time it was solely for religions purposes, and as such there was nothing like advertisement in the publication. Soon after that, a total of fifty – one newspapers was established in 1880 and 1937. The Lagos weekly record own by John Jackson was the publications, and that made it to last longer than other newspapers as the government arranged to pay Jackson a sum of 150 pounds a year or government notices in the weekly record. It should also be observed that advertisement brought a revenue of about 300 pounds in 1875, and 400 pounds in 1900.Noteworthy is the face that contemporary news papers than was not able to last long because of financial difficulties, hence some were running at a loss, and this was due to lack of advertisement that could have helped to meet cost of production and as well make profit for those newspapers. Apart from the Lagos weekly record, the Daily. A time which was a partnership venture between certain Nigeria, and European businessmen was another newspaper was sustained though “the significant expansion in advertisement support”. The broadcast media formally started in Nigeria with the inauguration of Nigeria Broadcasting service. In 1751, in Lagos, this was followed by the establishment of Western Nigeria Broadcasting Service in 1957. Eastern Nigeria Broadcasting service in 1952 and Northern Nigeria Broadcast media was solely founded by the government. In 1967 when 12 stated were created, broadcast media increased. With further creation of states in 1976 and 1988, more broadcasting stations were established as states want it for present and dissention of information of government policies. Only state own Broadcast media and Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) sell advertise time. The Federal radio corporation (FRCO) was still being funded by the government, not until 1982 when government allowed it to go commercial. This than increase the number of stations in the country, thereby giving advertisers many stations which they can buy air time. Advertising in Nigeria can be traced back to 1928, when the former West African publicity company, now LINTAS led to the advertisement of other advertising outfit as Hormblow code and Freeman, Glilines West Africa, Anger and Tunner, and Nigeria Burean of publicity. One unique characteristic of all these advertising outfit is that they were mainly owned by foreigners. It is not all that is a success story between 1930 and 1940, in that they have initial problem in the form of ‘absence of local experts, and insufficient publicity houses”. Between 1928 to 1944 there was not much relationship between the media and these advertising outfits, as “the press medium begun to play a minimal role in Nigeria advertisement. There were the Daily Times, Lagos Daily News and Nigerian Telegraph. The situation continued until the 1950s and 1960s that advertising begun to become popular. In 70s, there was emergence of indigenous advertising outfits funded and owned by Nigerians. As at 1988, there were about 68 advertising with the increase in economic activities and need to promote products, services, services, ideas, there comes the need to advertising and the media to send message across.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It has been observed that running a mass media is capital intensive enterprises over the years, so many Nigerian mass media fund and it is under a dispute whether all the avenue that help in sustaining a mass media come from advertisement. Therefore, this project is geared towards finding the critical role of advertising in the sustenance of Nigeria most media industry.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are;
To ascertain if advertising has any role to play in the sustenance of the media
To ascertain the relationship between sustenance of mass media and role of advertising
To ascertain the impact of mass media on advertisement
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: advertising has no role to play in the sustenance of the media
H1: advertising has role to play in the sustenance of the media
H02: there is no relationship between sustenance of mass media and role of advertising
H2: there is relationship between sustenance of mass media and role of advertising
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study is that it will help media and non media people to know if advertising plays critical role in the sustenance of Nigerian mass industry. And if it plays and role has this role been played or properly played. I will believe that this will help media practitioners and the advertising practitioners to find ways of improving the role. It will also help them to appreciate each other problem to their mutual benefit.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers sustenance of mass media industry the critical role of advertising. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
SUBSTENANCE: Sustenance" is probably misspelled. Trying substance instead Definition of substance substance has definitions from the field of economics that which has mass and occupies space. Synonyms. Matter. Examples. "An atom is the smallest indivisible unit of matter"
MASS MEDIA: The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication. The technologies through which this communication takes place include a variety of outlets.
ADVERTISING: Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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