Get the complete project »
- The Complete Research Material is averagely 153 pages long and it is in Ms Word Format, it has 1-5 Chapters.
- Major Attributes are Abstract, All Chapters, Figures, Appendix, References.
- Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE.
- Full Access Fee: ₦7,000
The deregulation of the broadcast media in 1992 democratised the media space and led to the establishment of the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) to regulate the Broadcast sector. NBC is the only body empowered to process and recommend broadcast licence for the President’s approval, through the Minister of Information. The lopsided approval of broadcast licence to political elite who are members of the ruling party has fuelled criticism among public analysts that broadcast media licence is being used for political patronage. This study examined the political interference and how the regulatory role of the NBC, affects the broadcasting industry in Nigeria.
The research design is a survey. The population was 1,558 broadcasters in the public and private broadcast media organisations as well as NBC officials in Lagos Nigeria. Using the criterion of professional experience of at least 15 years practice, purposive sampling was adopted in selecting senior Journalists in 8 public and private media organisations and 7 senior officials of the NBC. Consequently, 55 Key informants were interviewed from 8 public, private broadcast media organisations and NBC. The instrument was an interview guide. The Interviews from respondents were transcribed and sent via emails to ensure that responses were true reflections of their views as validity. The data were transcribed, content-analysed and thematically grouped based on research questions.
Findings from respondents revealed that the constitution of Nigeria and the NBC Act give room for political interference in the operations of the NBC. The constitution and the Act cover the powers of the President to grant broadcast licence while the Minister of Information controls the broadcasting regulatory agency. The study also reveals that causes of political interference are the power of the President to appoint the Director General for NBC , and the Minister of Information controls the operations of NBC as a parastaltal. The value addition of broadcast media as instrument for social, economic and political mobilisation attracted the interest of politicians to apply for broadcast licence. The study equally revealed that the effects of political interference were noticed in poor quality broadcasting, inadequate professionalism and lack of independence of the regulator.
The study concluded that effectiveness of the regulatory role of the NBC was inhibited by the provisions of the Constitution that enabled political interference. The study recommended the review of the Constitution, NBC Act, Broadcasting Code and the establishment of an Independent Media Commission to be managed by media stakeholders.
Keywords: Political interference, NBC, Broadcast licence, Broadcast media,
Media stakeholders, Independent Media Commission
1.1 Background to the Study
Politics and media are interwoven and critical to sustainable democracy because both involve the people, process of communication, utilization of resources and decision making. Kolade and Yankah, (1997), submitted that “politics and broadcast media are mutually beneficial because people must communicate with one another and the sovereign power of the people is not negotiable within the context of party politics and the broadcast media”. (p. 7). Omu and Oboh (2008) also noted that broadcast media play significant role in the conduct of politics in any country, (p. 10), Hence, Ogor (2002) posited that in a democratic society broadcasting is the “Oxygen of Democracy” (p. 74). It breathes life into political activities, makes government accountable to the people and an avenue for feedback on government policies, programmes and initiatives. Against this background, Ogor (2002) stated “it is the responsibility of the broadcast media to help increase the level of general awareness and mobilisation of the populace and even as an active participant in the shaping of democratic values through education and public enlightenment”, (p.86).
This postulation therefore set the stage for the commencement of broadcasting in Nigeria in 1933 through the “Redifussion Service” on Glover Street, Lagos to broadcast the policy of the then Governor General of Nigeria, Sir Macpherson. The Redifussion service, an offshore radio service from Britain could be described as a product of politics, self interests and assertiveness by the British colonial power to broadcast news from Britain to its colony – Nigeria. The colonial power controls the operations of the Redifussion Service in terms of contents and programmes, modelled after the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), operated as a state monopoly. The control of the Redifussion service was the first attempt at broadcast media regulation by government. To accentuate the colonial government monopoly on the broadcast media, in 1956, the colonial government enacted an Act of Parliament (Ordinance No 39) enabling the conversion of Redifussion service from the BBC control apparatus to Nigerian Broadcasting Service, (NBS). Its role then was to regulate the operations of radio station in terms of ethical standard of fairness, objectivity and balance of news and programmes, NBC (2002) noted.
By 1957, the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation, (NBC), came into existence to replace NBS, as the broadcasting regulator. “In October 1959, the famous Western Nigerian Television/Broadcasting Service, (WNTV/WNBS) funded by the Western regional government under late the Obafemi Awolowo’s Action Group was established. According Ejiofor,(2002), “WNTV/WNBS” was founded by Chief Obafemi Awolowo to have a voice and a right of reply to the central government broadcasting station- “the Redifussion Service”. The Redifussion Service had turned down the request of the then late Premier of Western Region to reply to an allegation against him by the Colonial government. In 1960, Eastern Region Government set up its own television service, Eastern Nigerian Television Service,(ENTS). This was followed by Radio Television Kaduna established by the former Northern Nigerian Government, an arm of the Broadcasting Company of Northern Nigeria, (BCNN), in March, 1962. In the same year, the Federal government established the Nigerian Television Service, (NTS) in Lagos. The (NTS) later changed its name to the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation /Television, (NBC/TV). All the regional broadcast stations in Ibadan, Kaduna and Enugu were merged under the NBC/TV. The radio arm came under the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) through military directive. Later in the same year, General Olusegun Obasanjo led federal military administration took over these television stations in 1978 and changed the name to the Nigerian Television Authority, (NTA). The main media regulatory agency in the early broadcast years was Posts and Telecommunications which later changed to the Ministry of Information and Culture till now.
The defining moment for the broadcast media in Nigeria came in 1992, a new broadcast media regulatory authority, the National Broadcasting Commission, (NBC), was established. This was in response to plurality of the broadcast media as practised in the liberal democracies of the world. In Nigeria, surprisingly, broadcast media plurality started under the military government, when the NBC decree No 38 of 1992 was promulgated by the military administration of General Ibrahim Babangida, deregulating the broadcast industry for creativity and competition.
The National Broadcasting Commission, (NBC) in Nigeria
The NBC is the Nigerian broadcast regulatory authority, set up in 1992 by the Ibrahim Babangida administration as the first success story of broadcast media deregulation. The essence of deregulation of the broadcasting media was aptly couched in the words of Igbako (2005):
Deregulation took its root in the overall policy of structural adjustment programme, SAP, of the military regime in the late 80’s to early 90s. The policy known as SAP, did not work in isolation as the political class needed more avenues to ventilate their views and mobilise support for their organizations just as advertisers clamoured for widening of the ownership base of broadcasting against background of the asphyxiating hold of the federal and states governments on broadcasting, (p. 4).
The pioneering Director- General was Dr Tom Adaba and Bright Igbako became the Secretary. There were 12 board members drawn from the media, academics, law, business and the Ministry of Information.
The first board members were : Mr Peter Enahoro, Veteran Journalist, as Chairman, Dr Tom Adaba, Veteran Broadcaster, Director General, Dr Dotun Okunbanjo, businessman and public commentator, Alhaji Shehu Usman Ka’oje, a senior public official from the National Orientation Agency,T.J.O Okpoko, Senior Advocate of Nigeria ,former President Nigeria Bar Association,Mr Ede Dafinione, Chartered Accountant, Mrs Modupe Adeogun a retired University Administrator, Professor Elo Amucheazi, a political scientist from University of Nigeria Nsukka, Mr Ralph Opara,Veteran radio broadcaster, Chief Akin Odunsi,Rosabel Advertising, Alhaji Sani Kontagora, a publisher, Alhaji Sidi Ali, Journalist, politician and businessman and a representative of the Ministry of Information.
The administrative structure of the Commission covers, the Board, the Director - General, Board of Management and expanded Board of management. The Director -General appointed in 2016 is Mallam Ishaq Modibo Kawu, a former member of the Board of the Commission. For administrative convenience, there are 10 zonal offices located in Abuja, Jos, Maiduguri, Kaduna, Kano, Sokoto, Ibadan, Lagos, Benin, and Uyo to handle the statutory responsibilities of the commission on the ever increasing broadcast media in Nigeria. Each of the zones has a Zonal Director. According to the NBC website (2017), the Commission’s administrative set up is now divided into eleven departments and three units, namely, Directorate of Monitoring, Finance and Accounts, Engineering/Technology, Human Resources Management, Broadcast Policy Research , Investigation and Enforcement .
Other directorates are Secretary to the Commission, Office of the Director General – Public Affairs, Director General Office and Internal Audit Department. The three units within the Director General’s office were, Public Procurement, Servicom, Anti –Corruption and Transparency. Three directorates, Monitoring, Broadcast Policy and Research as well as Investigation and Enforcement are germane to this study.
Statutory Role of NBC
In line with the act establishing the NBC, Idachaba (2015), Ihechu and Okugo (2013), averred that NBC regulatory functions are in line with the implementation of the National Mass Communication policy, which covers national motivation, mobilisation and the attainment of national or public interests, (p. 25) and (p. 14).
This is the first major statutory function of the NBC for the operation of a broadcast media in Nigeria. According to the NBC (2012), the procedure for a broadcast license starts with purchase, processing and consideration of applications for the ownership of radio and television stations including cable television services, direct satellite broadcast and any other medium of broadcasting. Applicants must have a limited liability company with the Nigeria’s Corporate Affairs Commission, CAC. Applications are subject to rules and regulation on its website- www.nbc.gov.ng.
The application fee is N50, 000, fifty thousand naira non refundable. The processing entails viability and economic status of a given area. There were three categories of applications, A, B and C for urban, semi urban or rural areas spectrum or frequency allocation and its cost. Lagos, Abuja, and Portharcourt as commercial centres and capital cities fall under category A. The cost of licence fee is between N15 and N20 million naira for radio and television. Akure, Ibadan, Kaduna, Kano ,Jos ,Maiduguri, were under category B, while all the remaining cities like ,Owerri, Dutse, Damaturu, Ikot Ekpene attract less licence fee of N10 million naira. For Ikot Ekpene, Eruwa, and Shagari village the licensing fee is below N10 million naira.
Despite the categorisation of licensing fees, the Freedom House Report (2015) suggested that the broadcast media are complaining over the high fees in line with the economic realities in the country.
The report emphasised:
Licensing fees and taxes for broadcast media remain high, and many outlets experience financial difficulties, limiting their viability. The only two nationwide broadcast networks are state-owned: the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria and the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA). However, in 2010 the NBC awarded the first private radio and television network license to Silverbird Communications, which had outbid two other private competitors for the licenses, (p. 10).
Other requirements for a broadcast license include the editorial and programmes of radio and television stations, its philosophy and personnel scrutinised by broadcast experts from the NBC. The promoters must swear under oath that the broadcast station if granted licence will promote national unity and cohesion. Similarly, the proposed broadcast station must state its engineering capacity such as type of mast, tower or guarded, transmitter type, antenna and VTR – Video Tape Recorders for TV, and Audio equipment for Radio. These facilities will be inspected by the NBC Engineers.
The application form clearly states that only Nigerians by birth and naturalisation can own or promote terrestrial stations while foreigners can provide services for cable broadcast operations. The Financial capacity of the promoter (promoters) is equally evaluated through bank reference by the commission. These are strict conditions for processing and eventual granting of broadcast licences. See appendix for the NBC Form. Once the application is verified and satified by NBC officials, a recommendation is sent to the President by the Director- General through the Minister of Information for approval. A broadcast licence is renewable after five years. Only the President, Commander in Chief, has the sole power to grant the licence according to the constitution. Nwanze (2003) argued that “the provision of this law subjects the licensing procedure to political manipulations and considerations especially under the democratic rule”, (p. 250). The broadcast license can be revoked by the NBC, if the broadcast stations breach the rules and regulations specified in the Nigeria Broadcasting Code, referred to as “The Code”.
Content Monitoring of broadcast stations in Nigeria is done through strict adherence to programme schedules containing local and foreign contents as contained in the “Broadcasting Code’, published by the NBC. The Broadcasting Code guides the operations of the licensed broadcast stations.NBC Broadcasting code (2012) provides a minimum of 60 per cent local broadcast content for television and 80 per cent for radio.
The cable /retransmission stations are expected to reflect a minimum of 20 per cent. Ihechu and Okugo (2013) concluded that “ the standards for Nigeria local content specifies that programmes and advertisements for family belt shall be devoid of sex or overt sexual behaviour, nudity, violence, bloodletting, smoking, alcohol, drug abuse, denigration of womanhood,offensive,lewd or vulgar language, expression and presentation”, (p. 16). NBC (2009) also spelt out family belt to be between the hours of 7pm and 10pm daily-a period when the family as a unit is presumed to be together watching television. It is on record that the broadcast regulatory authority has sanctioned both private and public television stations on violation of this provision. (p. 18). Innocent and Uzoma (2013) said NBC’s inability to effectively monitor the contents of radio and television broadcasts especially as related to the foreign content broadcast was obvious in the broadcast especially music and entertainments on radio and television. Some FM stations fill most air time with foreign music and television do the same with Mexican soaps which has gradually taken over from broadcasts of Nigerian dramas .Most astonishing is the telecast of “Big Brother Africa “ programme on a satellite channel. Innocent &Uzoma (p. 2) remarked.
A sanction for broadcast stations by the NBC comes as a result of violation or breach of the broadcasting code. Again MRA (2001) classified the sanctions into revocation of licence, shutting down of or sealing up of a station or transmitter, seizure or forfeiture of equipment and suspension of licence. Another category of sanction is, warning letter(s) to remedy a breach within a given time failing which a fine willbe imposed. (p. 22).The last category includes fines and stiffer sanctions for not complying with earlier sanctions. This is divided into three categories, A, B and C, see appendix. In category A, the sanction attracts payment of two million naira, temporary seizure of licence operation and even closure of the stations if there is a breach of national unity or corporate existence, violent, unrests, orchestrated by a broadcast station. Category B attracts 500,000 naira to fine for contravention. Category C can be warning and fine ranging between 50,000 and 200,000 naira as stated in the NBC code 2012.
However, the NBC uses discretion for sanctioning on minor breaches like late submission of quarterly programme schedules among others. In the run up to the 2003 elections, the state owned media, NTA supported the second term bid of President Olusegun Obasanjo, to use its platform for campaigns, while his opposition party counterpart, Muhammadu Buhari was not given the same opportunity during political campaigns. This obviously was against the NBC code on political coverage section which says” no broadcaster shall deny any person, party or group a right of broadcast of a political advertisement”. NBC could not enforce the law, Bello (2010) states.
In October 2005, African Independent Television, AIT and Ray Power FM, were sanctioned over the coverage of the Bellview Air crash. Adaba FM Akure , was also sanctioned for an alleged inappropriate election coverage of the then ruling party , Peoples Democratic Party, PDP campaigns in Ondo and Ekiti states. Adaba FM was closed down in 2009, but it went to court for redress. The court not only reversed the closure but asked the NBC to pay compensation to the station. Media Right Agenda, MRA, a media rights group refers to these sanctions as inappropriate as state owned broadcast media are also partisan in the coverage of electioneering campaigns and other breach of broadcasting code.
Abati (2007) described the broadcast of Big Brother Africa, as instruments of pornography and money spinning and House of Representatives (2008), says “ the broadcast shows the weakness of NBC to protect the viewers cultural heritage and moral persuasions”, (p.2). The Freedom House Report (2015) re-echoed the dilemma of strict sanction of NBC on foreign broadcast as far back as 2004, “a 2004 NBC ban on the live rebroadcast of foreign programs, including news, on domestic stations remains in force. However, international broadcasters such as the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and Voice of America remain key sources of news in the country”, (p. 12).
It was also noticeable that NBC could not enforce the law against traditional medicine seller advertisement for HIV/AIDS broadcast by the Islamic Medicine centers on Kano Radio and Freedom Radio, which are against the NBC code (2012) section 7.3.5, which states an advertisement shall not be broadcast if it contains an offer of a medicine or product or an advice relating to the treatment of serious diseases, complaints,conditions,indicationsor symptoms, which should rightly received the attention of a registered medical practitioner. Bello & Ashiru, (2010) agreed on this submission, (p.10).
NBC equally had challenges to sanction broadcast stations who broadcast live religious programmes over four hours especially in the Northern part of the country due to political pressures from the elites who allegedly uses religion to wipe - up sentiments. A good example is the religious programme on Kano Am radio which contravenes section 4.3.1 sub section 1 of the NBC Code (2012). (p.5).
Under this role, the NBC is expected to intervene in a professional misunderstanding between or among broadcast stations especially broadcast rights as noted in Euro 2000, Sydney Olympics 2000, and 2009 FIFA World Cup. Here stakeholders accused NBC of bias. The disputes were between Channels TV and NTA, in one instance and NTA and AIT, in another respect. On Euro 2000, NBC ruled against Channels TV over obtaining broadcast rights from TV Africa, because the station was not registered in Nigeria. It gave NTA the broadcast right. In September, 2000, NBC ruled that only NTA and FRCN, members of Union of Radio and Television Association, URTNA have the broadcast rights to 2000 Sydney Olympics. AIT acquired the broadcast rights for then telecast of FIFA 2009 Junior World Cup from FIFA, over and above the state run NTA. The regulator ruled that only NTA should have the broadcast rights. This was however overturned by FIFA in favour of AIT. (Ihechu &Okugo,2013, p.17)
Funding of NBC
The NBC is funded through appropriation from the country annual budgetary provision as approved by the parliament. According to the NBC Act 1992, third Schedule, the broadcast regulator is entitled to a percentage of licence fee and levy from the annual income of the licensed broadcast stations. Other sources of income are broadcast license fee, renewal and sale of spectrum. (NBC Code 2012,p.175).
Between Broadcast Regulation and Deregulation
Two issues, broadcast regulation and deregulation are also germane to this study in putting into perspectives the historical background of the broadcast media in Nigeria. Media regulation is the legal platform for the establishment of broadcast media in Nigeria, Goke (2013) noted. It is a total control of the ownership, funding and control of the broadcast media in Nigeria. Harvey (1999, p. 2) said media regulation generally “involves intervention by the state in areas of economic, social or cultural life according to whatever political norms of that Nation or state…. It may be issued by presidential decree or by legislative action within a system of representative democracy” According to the NBC (2002), broadcast media regulation in Nigeria started in 1933 with the establishment the Redifussion Service under of auspices of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications.
An Act of parliament (Ordinance No 39) was introduced in 1956 to establish the National Broadcasting Service. By 1957, the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation was set up. After the independence in 1960, the government control was sustained by the Ministry of Information and Culture under the military to the civilian administration until 1992 when deregulation was introduced with the establishment of the National Broadcasting Commission, (NBC). This was done through the NBC Act NO 38 of 1992, amended in 1999.
The deregulation of the broadcast media is described as the reduction in the government control of the broadcast media to create more entry and participation for the private ownership of radio and television in Nigeria. (NBC 2002, p.7) stated. Accordingly, what was remarkable about the deregulation in 1992 was the entry of more private investors in the broadcast industry which led to healthy competition between the state and private owned broadcast media, Goke et al (2013, p.1) indicated.
Television was the first major attraction to the new broadcast media owners under the deregulation more than radio, although some of the investors had both television and radio licences. The first set of private television licenses according to NBC (2005) were , Galaxy Pictures in Ibadan, Desmims Broadcast,Kaduna;Triple Heritage Communications Limited, Abuja; Degue (DBN),Lagos; IBW in Benin; Clapperboard( Universal), Lagos; Murhi International, Otta now in Lagos; Minaj Systems Limited, Obosi,TDC Broadcasting Limited , Lagos; Prime Television Limited, Ikorodu; Triax Company Nigeria Limited, Enugu; Independent Broadcast Network, Warri; Channels Incorporated, Lagos; DAAR Communications Limited (Raypower 100FM and African Independent Television, AIT),Abuja and Vibrant Communications Limited, Aba. The Cable/ Satellite Television in 1993 were 51 stations from 10 companies, meant for (Direct – To- Home Television Service, DTHS), (p. 8).
Eighteen more companies were approved to undertake multichannel direct-to-home television services. Only three are in operations in 2016. They are Multichoice Limited (DSTV) in Lagos, Communication Trend (Trend TV) in Lagos and Fam-sum-ben Limited (Frontage TV), also based in Lagos. Cable / Satellite Television (Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service, MMDS) licensed by the NBC since inception were 66, both for public and the private media groups. Half of the broadcast stations are operational. Some of them are: Ebonyi state owned station, Abakaliki, Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas, NLNG Company, Bonny, Multimesh in Portharcourt and Power Cable Company in Surulere, Lagos. For Terrestrial Television, NBC licensed 147.Out of these, federal government owned Nigerian Television Authority, NTA had 99.At least one of these stations are located in each senatorial zone of the country. States government had 34 television stations, while14 are owned by private companies.
Remarkably, the first set of radio and television under deregulation were subjected to public scrutiny through a public hearing by the NBC Between 1999 and 2002, a business tycoon, Chief Adebayo Akande, is the owner of Splash FM Ibadan, Chief Alex Duduyemi, is the Chief Executive Officer, Rainbow FM and politicians such as Alhaji Atiku Abubakar of Goethe FM, Bola Tinubu of TVC/RC and Raymond Dokpesi of African Independent Television, (AIT) and Ray Power FM among others have taken advantage of the economic and political opportunities in the broadcast media to add to their economic and political interest. Today, the numbers of both the private broadcast media organisation has increased significantly. See the appendix for the lists of radio and television station in Nigeria by the NBC.
In 2002, during the administration of President Olusegun Obasanjo, the licences of twenty one broadcast stations were not subjected to public scrutiny. Many of the broadcast station are owned by political stalwarts of the ruling PDP and selected members of the opposition, APC. In 2014, during President Goodluck Jonathan’s tenure , more broadcast licenses were granted to politicians within the same ruling party namely Crown FM, Ile Ife owned by Chief Iyiola Omisore, Parrot FM, Ogbomosho. (NBC 2016 Station profile Ibadan Zone).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
No doubt the deregulation of the broadcast media has led to an exponential increase in the number of radio and television stations from both the government and the private investors across Nigeria. However, these owners have varied interests ranging from economic, political, in contrast to public interests. Ibrahim (2000) put the interests of politicians who are owners of broadcast stations in perspective, “politicians themselves believe that they need the media (broadcast inclusive) before they can win and retain supporters. They also count on the support of the media before they could sway the undecided voters to their side and gain in-road into opposition’s camp”. Radio and television becomes so attractive. (p. 9).
While government or state owned broadcast station is promoting the political interest, the private owners of radio and television are alleged to promoting both political and commercial interests. These are reflected in the news slant and programmes especially during the campaigns for the general elections between 2003 and 2015. Bamgbose (2004), a former President of Radio and Television, Thearter Workers Union, (RATTAWU), expressed these concerns among others during the UNDP capacity development programme for the media in Abuja, Nigeria’s capital.
today, the public broadcast and private media are partisan and promoting the interests of its promoters. The messages in the public media are tuned towards the ruling party, while some of the private broadcast media are now allegedly owned by businessmen, investors and media professionals who have sympathy for one political party or the order.
Sada (2002) equally submitted that “there is no gainsaying that the broadcast media in the country are partisan. To him, “broadcast stations across the country are now identified with one political party or the other”, (p. 5). Goke, Odegbenle, Jegede (2013, p.2) also observed concerns about programme content on the broadcast media post deregulation. They observed that the NBC broadcasting Code requirements section 3.12, 3.13 .2.2 to 3.14 are not strictly adhered to. The sections were specific on 60 to 40 per cent local programme content and 80 per cent of all music broadcast on free –to - air terrestrial broadcasts has suffered serious setbacks in favour of the foreign programmes especially from the private broadcast media stations.
Since the advent of democratic rule in Nigeria 1999, unethical conduct among some media practitioners in the broadcast industry has been a recurring decimal despite the operations of the broadcasting code published by the NBC. Arogundade (2014) remarked in his opening address at the UNDP/IPC media forum on ethical conduct during 2015 elections. These inadequacies are noticeable in the breach of broadcasting code especially on content of news and currents affairs in relation to political broadcasts. These unethical conducts are contrary to standard of fairness and balance in the NBC(2012) broadcast code sections 5.1.12, 5.1.13, 5.1.14, 5.2.1, 5.2.4 to 5.2.8 as outlined:
News and Current Affairs programmes shall be guided by the ethical standards of Journalism. Programmes devoted to the discussion of a matter of public interest shall ensure fairness and balance. The selection of news stories shall emphasise good taste, avoiding morbid, sensational, shocking or alarming details that are not essential to conveying the essence of the events being reported (p. 66, 67and 68).
Despite these breaches of the broadcasting code, it has been alleged that the NBC had been unable to appropriate sanction and if they do only private broadcast stations are sanctioned as Media Rights Agenda, (MRA 2010) observed. “No public funded broadcast stations were closed or license suspended. But the private broadcast media outfits have faced stiffer sanctions. No broadcast license has been revoked or withdrawn despite several warnings of deliberate breaches of the broadcasting code”. At the 2010 consultative meeting of the Independent Broadcasters Association of Nigeria, (IBAN), that the NBC seems not to be neutral and media practitioners have observed that the regulatory agency seems not to be independent. If the NBC is hesitant to sanction a federal government or public owned broadcast media? Can it be said that the broadcast
You either get what you want or your money back. T&C Apply
You can find more project topics easily, just search
SIMILAR MASS COMMUNICATION FINAL YEAR PROJECT RESEARCH TOPICS
» CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY One of the primary challenges faced by developing countries especially Nigeria stems from the bre...Continue Reading »
» CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The mass media are important component that play the roles of expressing the wishes, aspirations,...Continue Reading »
» ABSTRACT The effect of social media has increased among consumers around the world, causing an increase in the adoption of social media as tactics and...Continue Reading »
4. PRESS COVERAGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION IN THE NIGER DELTA. A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF THE GUARDIAN, VANGUARD, DAILY SUN AND THISDAY NEWSPAPERS» ABSTRACT Since man’s activity is done in the environment and the resultant effect is either negative or positive to man, the press as the watchd...Continue Reading »
5. THE EFFECT OF NEW COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON RADIO BROADCASTING IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF SPLASH F.M 105.5 MOKOLA HILL IBADAN)» CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Technology is the context is considered as indigenous capacity to create, adopt, diffuse, modify the ...Continue Reading »
» CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Background to the Study Opinion leaders are defined as individual who exert an unequal amount of influence on the decision of others&r...Continue Reading »
» CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION The role of the media, particularly, television in advancing national integration is pivotal. Television has become a ver...Continue Reading »
8. IMPERATIVE FOR THE APPLICATION OF DESKTOP PUBLISHING IN CREATING PUBLIC AWARENESS FOR THE ENROLMENT INTO PRINTING TECHNOLOGY FOR KADUNA STATE INDIGENE...» Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the imperative for the application of desktop publishing in creating public awareness for the enro...Continue Reading »
9. RELIGION, POLITICS AND THE REVOLUTIONARY IMPULSE IN AFRICAN-ARABIC DRAMA. A STUDY OF TEWFIQ AL-HAKIM’S THE SULTAN’S DILEMMA AND THE FATE OF A COCK...» ABSTRACT The research entitled, “Religion, Politics and the Revolutionary Impulse in African Arabic Drama. A Study of Tewfiq Al Hakim’s Th...Continue Reading »
» ABSTRACT This study focused on journalists' perception of the credibility of citizen journalism on social media platforms. The population of the study...Continue Reading »