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TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page - - - - - - - - - - -i
Declaration - - - - - - - - - - -ii
Certification - - - - - - -- - - - -iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - - -iv
Acknowledgements - - - -- - - - - - -v
Table of contents - - - - -- - - - - -vi
List of table‟s - - - - - - - - - - -ix
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - -x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background of the study - - - - - - - - 1
1.2. Statement of problem - - - - - - - - 4
1.3. Objectives of the study - - - - - - - - 4
1.4. Research questions - - - - - - - - -5
1.5. Research hypotheses - - - - - - - - 5
1.6. Significance of the study - - - - - - - - 5
1.7. Scope of the study - - - - - - - - 6
1.8. Assumptions of the study - - - - - - - - 6
1.9. Operational definition of significant terms - - - - - 6
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Introduction- - - - - - - - - - -7
2.2. Review of concept - - - - - - - - -7
2.3. Review of Related Studies - - - - - - - -21
2.4. Theoretical Frame work - - - - - ---- 27
2.5. Summary of literature Review - - -- - - - --- 28
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0. Introduction - - - - - - - - - -30
3.1. Research design - - - - - - - - - 30
3.2. Population of study - - - - - - - - -31
3.3. Sampling technique and sample size - - - - - - 31
3.4. Description of research Instrument - - - - - - 32
3.5. Validity of instruments - - - - - - - - 33
3.6. Reliability of the instrument - - - - - - - 33
3.7. Method of data collection - - - - - - - -33
3.8. Method of data analysis - - - - - - - - 34
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1. Introduction - - - - - - - - - -35
4.2. Data presentation and analysis - - - - - - - 36
4.3. Testing of hypotheses - - - - - - - - 47
4.4. Discussions of findings - - - - - - - - 51
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1. Introduction - - - - - - - - - -56
5.2. Summary - - - - - - - - - - 56
5.3. Conclusion - - - - - - -- - - -57
5.4. Recommendations - - - - - - - - -58
5.5. Suggestion for further studies - - - - - - - 59
References - - - - - - - - - -60
Appendices - - - - - - - - - -62
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. The sample population- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Table 2. Distribution table- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Table 3. Respondent‟s sex - - - - - - - - -35
Table 4. Respondent‟s age bracket - - - - - - - -36
Table 5. Respondent‟s educational level - - - - - - -37
Table 6. Respondent‟s marital status- - - -- - - - -37
Table 7. Viewership of television advertising on hair relaxer- - -- - -38
Table 8. Enjoyment of television advertisement - - - - - -39
Table 9. Effect of television advertisement on the choice of hair relaxer - - -40
Table 10. Description of NTA Enugu television advertisement - - - -41
Table 11. Television advertisement influence on ladies on the choice of hair relaxer -42
Table 12. Brand of hair relaxer advertised of NTA ENUGU - - - -43
Table 13. Advertisement effect on choice of hair relaxer brand - - - -44
Table 14. Extent of choice of hair relaxer based on what is advertised - - -45
Table 15. Brand of hair relaxer use - - - - - - -- -46
Table 16. Choice of hair relaxer based on hair texture - - - - -47
Table 17. Comparism of advertisement information to product performance - -48
Table 18. Other factors that influence ladies choice of hair relaxer - - - -49
Table 19. Ladies choice of hair relaxer based on quality of brand - - - -50
Table 20. Audience comprehension of advertisement messages - - - -51
Table 21. Entertainment and jingles that accompanies advertisement message - -52
Table 22. Hypothesis testing 1 - - - - - - - -53
Table 23. Hypothesis testing 2 - - - - - - - -55
“Influence of Television Advertisement on the Choice of Hair Relaxer among Female Undergraduates”, is aim to determine the influence of television advertisement on ladies on the choice of hair relaxer products. The method of the study is survey method and the instrument used for data collection is the questionnaire and personal interview. The population of the study is 2,280 out of which 150 were purposively selected and sampled Data collected was analyzed in tables and simple percentages. The researcher recommended that marketers should understand that what consumers want in a product is satisfaction. The study enlightened female undergraduates more on hair relaxer products that suit their hair texture. Therefore manufacturers are encouraged to produce quality hair relaxer products bearing in mind that no consumer can go a second time for a product that fail to satisfy her. While advertising can help sell a product, it can do nothing to help a sub-standard one.
1.1 Background of the study.
Advertising has come a long way, expanding its coast in principles and practice. It is gaining more recognition, increasing its application and usage. Since the advent of technology and within the different forms of information communication technology, it has become a toast of in the life of manufacturers, products and services, consumers advertising agencies and the media. In short advertising means a lot to different people. It has given many people something to think about. In one way, it could be what the people do with advertising and in another way, what advertising do with the people and for the people. The people here are the manufacturers or advertisers who, through advertising, are creating awareness for their goods and services. Another set of people are the public, the consumers, who are desperately in need for certain goods and services. The advertising agencies are not left out. They are willing to create the enabling ground for the advertisers for their products and services and the target audience through a medium or media of communication. Advertising helps the advertising agencies to showcase their creativity. The media cannot do without advertising. Apart from the revenue they get from placing such advertisements; it attracts more viewership, readership or fellowship of the channel. And of course the teachers and students of advertising are part of this component. The teachers are busy expanding the scope and application of advertising, adjusting the old form to adapt to the new technologies, the students are left with the issue of coping, understanding and assimilation and later application.
Nevertheless, Bovee and Arens (1992:309), say advertising is a “non-personal communication of information, usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature, about products, services, or ideas by identified sponsors through various media”. Along the line, the Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria (APCON) in Ozoh (1998:1) posits “advertising
as a form of communication through media about products, services, or ideas, paid for by an identified sponsor”.
Advertising as a business competitive strategy is aimed at creating awareness of the existence of a product through the communication media. Television advertising has effect on buyers and potential buyers.
Television advertising has earned an excellent, consistent and successful track record of promoting product and services. Television advertising has many advantages for local, regional and national business. In urban area like Enugu, television provides the most spectacular way in which an advertiser can reach the greatest number of people at a time as they posses television sets.
Television advertising is an exciting, dynamic and challenging enterprise. Its often pervasive, fascinating and materialistic nature makes it an object of criticism and misunderstanding. It is a form of communication through the media about product, services, ideas, personalities or organizations paid for by an identified sponsor. If advertisements have no effect, companies would not spend so much money on them. Advertising help us to discover much about what appeals to us as consumers and investigate how advertisers manipulate this to their benefit.
According to Rouse and Rouse, (2002), building a strong image or brand requires high impact advertising that has high visibility. Television has such characteristics. It is a highly prestigious form of advertising.
Sybil and Obah (1987), say this form of advertising play on the emotions of consumers and exploit their desire with intensive persuasion .Advertising aim at promoting goods and services like relaxer. Benson Eluwa (2005:3) Advertising does more than sell product. It makes mass marketing possible by making prospective customers aware of the availability and unique qualities of specific goods and services. It shapes our attitude and our attitudes shape our behavior, Ahunaya (2004:70).
According to Benson Eluwa (2005:44) the influence of advertising does not stop at the economy but also influence the youths greatly by way of sensitization, social interaction, modification, for example, caritas students. Advertising has influenced female undergraduates by making them to be materialistic, it affects their value system, makes them think that life is just acquisition of more things. Advertising creates opportunities and brings changes in the attitudes of undergraduates by making them change products not minding the effect of those products, shapes students tastes and habit.
A researcher ,Alvan (2004) in his write up said that „‟Advertisements like our age are hedonistic image management, and fashion driven, they glorify the individual, idealize, consumption as the route to personal fulfillment and affirm technological progress as the motive force of destiny” there must be various brands of hair relaxer in the shops, market stall and in hawkers barrows, the ability for each to sell depends on the brands exposure to and persuasive power of advertising messages on the buyer as well as the quality of such brand and finally the availability of the brand.
Some of the brand had long established their names while others are still coming up into the market example, Ozone, Dallas, Ebony and La-sheen cream relaxer. This is why the purpose of advertising hair relaxer seems to be geared towards not only informing its prospective buyers about its arrival but also persuading on efficiency and efficacy.
Television seems to be the best media used to advertise these products. Television has this partial monopoly, perhaps because of its power to positive music of the advertisement and the color. Music can heighten the emotional or dramatic impact of the commercial. The idea of positioning music as unique selling point is to reinforce the recognition of advertisement. Advertising is a very small aspect of marketing mix one cannot ignore.
Most people in advertising try to ask whether advertisement really work by influencing consumers choices of product. Although, researchers and data on advertising have added over the years, the evidence of its success has not been conclusive. The
effectiveness of advertising and how it generates sales does not mean that progress has not been made on the product.
Researchers have come up with principles that test the relationship in advertising exposure and its effectiveness. These principles in advertising which are base on product selection by consumers were evaluated in this research and it is hoped this will provide insight into the study of whether advertisement does influence consumers‟ preference of competitive products. There are a whole lot of ideas on what advertising is and works. It can be seen as a promotional instrument that persistently creates awareness of goods and services with the objective of persuading this target audience to patronize or take action.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The problem of this study is to investigate the influence of television advertising on the choice of hair relaxer among female undergraduates in Caritas University.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The following are the objectives of the study:
1. To find out if television advertisement has influence on female undergraduates choice of products.
2. To find out if ladies go for what they see advertized on television.
3. To know if female undergraduates make choice of hair relaxer based on their texture.
4. To find out whether female undergraduates choose hair relaxer based on the quality of the brand.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions are found relevant to the study
1. How does television advertisement influence female undergraduates on the choice of hair relaxer?
2. To what extent do female undergraduates make choice of hair relaxer based on what they see advertised on television?
3. Do you think that the female undergraduate‟s choice of hair relaxer is based on their hair texture?
4. How do female undergraduates choose their hair relaxer quality of brand?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypothesis were formulated for the study
H1. Female undergraduate‟s make choice of hair relaxer based on what they see and hear advertized on television.
H2. Female undergraduate‟s choice of hair relaxer is based on their hair texture.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is relevance in equipping manufacturers on product design and advertisers on the most appropriate selection of channel to disseminate information about product consumption.
It will enlighten female undergraduates more on relaxer products that suit their hair texture and also an important guide to future students who undertakes researches on similar studies.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study is centered on female undergraduates especially caritas university female students who relax their hair and watch NTA Enugu television advertisement on hair relaxer.
1.8 Assumptions of the Study
The researcher assumes that:
1. The respondents watch television advertisements on hair relaxer.
2. Television advertisements should be informative.
3. Television advertisement influence female students on the choice of hair relaxer.
4. The quality of advertisement message determines the choice of brand.
1.9 Operational definition of significant terms
In these research works, the variables used were operationally defined, the meaning reflect how the researcher wants the variables to be understood in the context of the work.
1. Advertising: A group of activities aimed at dissemination of information many paid on personal formation concerning an idea, product or service (both new brand and old products) to compel action in accordance with the intent of an identified sponsor.
2. Television: This is an electronic device that has both visual and audio effect with the aid of electro-magnetic wave.
3. Female Undergraduates: Young ladies who are still undergoing the process of higher education or learning.
4. Hair Relaxer: A cream that makes the hair easier to straighten and manage.
5. Choice: Act of choosing out of multiple items or brands of products.
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