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1.1 Background of the Study
Relevant literature revealed that Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press and independently developed a movable type system in Europe around 1450. From this noble beginning, the printing industry has evolved from simple hand craft to a far more advanced technology. Kippan (2001) pointed out that printing is a reproduction process in which printing ink is applied to a printing substrate in order to transmit information (text, graphics and other images) in a repeated form using an image carrying medium.
Printing has therefore transformed from being a craft to a more recognized profession practice at the global level. Therefore, due to the technological developments, significant changes are continuing in the printing industry, and thus demand a skilled workforce with up to date technical competencies. The digitalization/computerization of print has not only facilitated printing, it has also raised the status of printing from a blue collar job to the level of almost a white collar job. Gone were the days when printers stained their hands with inks.
The introduction of modern technology such as computer print control (CPC) has taken over which has helped in shoring up the image of the new age printer beyond that of a craftsman. The printing of today is a mixed of technology.
Thus printing industry as we know it today is not how it has been. The industry is forever advancing frontiers; and over the years as technology has evolved its speed has increased to meet the demand of the market place. Consequently, the introduction of advancement in printing industry cannot undermine the place of graphic design desktop publishing (DTP). DTP is the combination of text and graphics into documents such as posters, handbills, and flyers by using a computer system with special software and high resolution output device.
Consequently, Desktop publishing is a means of image origination in the printing industry. Desktop publishing exploded in popularity in 1980 and 1985, when Mac publishing to capitalized on the capabilities of Apple Macintosh computers. Desktop publishing refers to the act of using appropriate software on a personal computer to combine media element such as text, photos or charts into printable documents. One of the key features is the ability to preview a page layout prior to printing via a feature called visual display unit and what you see is what you get (WYSIWYG).
Printing is a profession requiring high level of skill to be able to deliver effectively print communication media that no other profession can do without. There is no space of human’s life that printing has not touched, no wander it is always said that Printing is the Bed Rock of civilization,hence No Printing, No learning”. Printing profession is a very lucrative one which contributes immensely to the Nation’s economy. Studies showed that it is one of the fastest growing industries in the World (IBIS World 2003). It is an industry that creates enormous employment opportunity in all the developed economies.
Consequently, the establishment of printing industry in Nigeria has had its share of development in job creation, education, industry and commence. The development of this noble profession had let to the establishment of printing institutions in Nigeria. These printing institutions have produced great printing professionals and entrepreneurs who have been contributing to the growth and development of Nigeria economy.
One of these Printing institutions in Nigeria is the Department of Printing Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic which is located in Kaduna metropolis. The Department of Printing Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic runs quite a number of printing programmes that include Post HND, HND, ND and Certificates in Printing Technology. The Department since its inception has produced competent printing professionals and entrepreneurs who are managing Printing business firms employing thousands of people.
Quite unfortunately, this development has not significantly been reflected in Kaduna State despite the proximity of the Department of Printing Technology. Thus, only three local governments out of (24) in the state are seen to have printing business firms that is Zaria, Kaduna North and Kaduna South. Also the enrollment statistics of Kaduna State indigenes in the Department of Printing Technology right from 2012 to date is one hundred and six (106). This figure is quite low considering the fact that the institution is in the State. It could arguably be put forward that the low enrolment is a function of the print business practices in the state as when compared to other states like Lagos, Oyo, Rivers and Enugu.
Kaduna State being the capital of Northern Nigeria enjoys a large population due to many government offices, schools, religious structures and other social institutions like hospitals and financial institutions. These are institutions that to a large extent require Print services to thrive in the day to day transactions. However, the absence of printing establishments in most of the Local Government Areas has resulted to print business outsourcing to states where printing businesses are thriving.
Considering the enormous contribution of Printing Industry to economic growth and development to any state, Kaduna State cannot be an exception in this drive. It is therefore most likely that there is lack of public awareness for the huge economic development potentials associated with printing industry hence the need for creating awareness for the Printing Programme in Kaduna State. Also couple with the fact that although many research projects have been conducted in printing technology in Kaduna state, none addressed the application of Desktop Publishing in creating public awareness for Printing Programme in Kaduna State, hence the need for this study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is evident that in Kaduna State of recent, there have been experiences of social and economic challenges which are characterized by ethno religious crises, kidnapping, armed-banditry and ethno cleansing by Fulani herdsmen. These are apparent indicators of several economic hardships resulting from industrial economic inactivity in the state. The absence of industries which could have gainfully employed the large population of unemployment people for a meaningful living might be responsible.
Printing industry that is one of the major employers of labour could have been the panacea to these social problems in the state. Quite unfortunately, only three Local Government areas of Kaduna North, Kaduna South and Zaria have print business firms which only very few are limited liability companies employing few number of people. Could thus be direct consequence of poor enrolment from Kaduna state in the printing institution which could have turn out printing graduates and printing entrepreneurs for the development of the industry in Kaduna state?
What then is the impact of this poor enrolment into the school of Printing Technology that is solely responsible for producing highly competent printing technocrats for the economic development of Kaduna State. Documented evidence revealed that printing industry has been a major player in economic development, hence this study sought to determine the imperative for the application of Desktop Publishing in creating public awareness for Printing Programme in Kaduna State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to determine the imperative for the application of desktop publishing in creating public awareness for printing programme in Kaduna state.
Specifically, the study sought to:
i. Identify suitable media for Creating Public Awareness using Desktop Publishing System for Printing Technology Programme in Kaduna Polytechnic?
ii. Determine the Level of Awareness of Printing Technology Programmes in Kaduna State.
iii. Identify the factors hindering students’ enrolment from Kaduna State into Printing Programmes in Kaduna Polytechnic.
iv. Determine the benefits of studying Printing TechnologyProgramme in Kaduna State.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study on imperative for the application of Desktop Publishing in creating awareness for Printing Programme in Kaduna Polytechnic will be of significance to the following categories of beneficiaries.
1. Kaduna State Government.
2. Print media investors.
3. O level graduates.
4. Youth that are prepared for career service in the Print media.
5. The Department of Printing Technology Kaduna Polytechnic.
Kaduna State Government, as educated professional printers are readily available, they will meet up with the state demands for good quality printed products, which will also create more revenue for the state and this would give the economy of the nation a tremendous boost.
To the Print media investors, trained, literate, competent and skillful graduates will be employed into the print media which will enhance increase in productivity, sales, profit and revenue of Kaduna State.
For O’level graduates, the study will benefit them in choosing their career. The information provided in this study will create interest in the youth to pursue many of different career service in the Printing Industry.
Youth that are prepared for career service in the print media, the study will enlighten him or her on what Printing Technology is all about. Also more students will be encouraged to enroll in the programme.
The Department of Printing Technology Kaduna Polytechnic it will have more students’ enrolments and hence will be able to attract more internally generated revenue for Kaduna Polytechnic.
1.5 Research Questions
The study on Imperative for the Application of Desktop Publishing in Creating Public Awareness for the Enrolments into Printing Technology Programmes in Kaduna State was guided by the following research questions:
i. Which media are suitable to be used for creating public awareness using Desktop Publishing system for Printing Technology Programmes of Kaduna Polytechnic?
ii. What is the level of awareness of Printing Technology Programmes in Kaduna State?
iii. What are the factors hindering students’ enrolment from Kaduna State into Printing Technology Programmes in Kaduna Polytechnic?
iv. What are the benefits of studying Printing Technology Programmes in Kaduna State?
1.6 Delimitation of the Study
The scope of this study is delimited to the use of Desktop Publishing in creating public awareness for the enrolment into Printing Technololgy Programme for Kaduna State indigenes, using Kaduna North and South Local Government Areas. The study employed Graphic application packages suitable for Desktop Publishing as well as suitable substrates for the dissemination of information on Printing Programmes of Kaduna Polytechnic. Other Printing processes such as Screen Printing, Flexography, Gravure, and Offset Lithography were not part of this study.
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