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As long as human being need each other in behaviour and action economic activities as well as administration are becoming more and more complex, organizations are lending towards grouping together, while in sit of organizations are globally.
Institutions in the same group or ministries may frequently be separated geographically by considerable distance. Often therefore, it is impossible for a publicorganization and administrators to hold effective meeting or to contact all interested parties.
Consequently a good communication becomes essential to the effective operation of any organization or administration and institutions.
Levis and Buker (1983) defined communication as the conveying of thought, opinions, desires and data to some one else but it more than just an exchange of evidence. For the receiver must understand, communication to effective whatever you say or write, thus, communication are concerned with the successful transfer of message from the sender to the receiver.
Communication can also be seen as the process by which one person (group) share and impact information to another person or (group) so that both people and group can clearly understand one another.
Communication is the passing of information, news etc. the various and felling from the person to another James etal(1990).
From there above therefore, it can be said that communication is not just the giving of understandable information and receiving and understanding the message thereby sent. Communication is the transmission of a message from a source through a channel to a destination.
PW Atkuns (1987), Tohim communication could be verbal, radio, written etc. He further stated that because human beings cannot survivewithout communication more especially administration of nowadays.
Communication therefore exists everywhere and it has now become an indispensable tool for effective administration.
According to Strams .G Sayles (1992) communication are concerned with the eructation, transmission, interpretation and use of information. Communication can be on a person to person basis, as when a boss tells, some one what to do and when a subordinate report back to his superior from this point.
Communication can also be on department/corporate basis in all organization. When the various department interchange information from one department to the other, reaction report, and comments that more or less effectively up again.
1.2. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In a cross cultural study on communication involving the USA, Japan and Britain it was discovered that communication breakdown was the simple greatest barrier to corporate excellence. Inefficient communication in an organization is symptomatic of a fairly corporate, chain. When the administrators in an organization are friendly, and have a good working report, communication tends to be very good but when the numbers of the organization engaged to be mutual distrust, resentment, gossips or when there is a feeling of incompetence and insecurity there is bound to communication breakdown, and communication breakdown can lead to the downfall of every administrators, management as well as an organization in general.
However, all the key functions of administrators and organization such as planning, organizing, directing and controlling depend on the effective form proper execution. The role of communication to administrators is highlighted by the fact that in an empirical study it was discovered that white-collars employed communicated. 70% of the time.These involve any of the formal mean of communication listening, speaking, reading and writing.
Directing as one of the key function of administrator it requires effective communication from proper execution. All good leaders encourage effective communication by having established channels (formal and informal) means of transmitting information to people when the Leader, Set,the,Pacefor open communication by encouraging subordinate to be frank, by soliciting information and sending with feed back he set a good organization climate for administrators. In all enterprises, effective organization channel is requires to transmit company policies, programmes rule and regulatory agencies and the general public. It is through good communication with board of directors management and administrators papers and subordinate than an administration maintains good will grows and waxes. The effect of communication in an organization can be measured in terms of attitude and performance for it affect the moral of the employers and their attitude toward the leadership or administration and consequently productivity.
The good administrator recognizes the fact that it has to transmit skill and knowledge through the various mean or source of communication to those the organization through it directing, controlling, organizing, ability to decision making and coordinating techniques. Also the quality of communication skill posses by the administrators determines his degree of accomplishment. After all the primary function of an administrators in the management of relation between the institution and it environment in the over all goal of achieving optimal performance of the primary task of the institution.
For administration the wordcommunicator save two key functions.
- It provides a vehicle by which one can implement a plan for action coordinated toward a common goal.
- It provide a mean by which member of the organization can be motivated to execute the plan willingly and enthusiastically.
Therefore, the issuance of orders and the elicit of participative responses are totally dependent on communication.
1.3. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The background of communication also include the statement of the communication problem i.e communication is a two way traffic that is information is not only from the supervisor or subordinates. It also emanates from subordinate to supervisor in an organization. Communication does not only between organization but information could also be passed horizontally, for instance within institution from one department to another e.g in Kaduna Polytechnic from the department of public administration to the department of Local Government studies.
From the foregoing, it could be discovered that poor communication be an institution or organization may lead to conflict at the department or efficient and effective communication therefore these research would examine erotically the following question otherwise referred to as statement of the problem so as to establish fact about. The importance or effective communication in an institution;
- Do management communicate to employee through the right channel?
- What method of communication does the management employed to reach all and sundry in the institution?
- Do union leaders as representatives of the splices perform their link age role for the interest of employee and management?
- How does the worker in different department share common views among themselves?
- Why it is that communication as a soul for any organization is not being effectively use by management to bridge the gap between employees and the management more especially concerning economic matter that may favour the employees.
For instance increase in pay or wages, bonus fringe benefits, leave allowance etc. these and many other research question that are still vital to the success of this project as well as beneficial to the researcher as well as the institution that depend largely on the essence of effective communication will be involved into course of this research.
Then this chapter cannot be complete without discussing one of the different areas in an organizational communication.
This deals with his function. In Nigeria the conflict between the supervisor and subordinate generally originates from the apparent failure of the subordinate to carry out instruction completely. An incite supervisor who find out his instructions have not been implemented reprimands, his subordinate and call humans.
He could accuse him of being lazy, careless, checking in imagination and common sense and a misfit in the organization. The subordinate in the other hand will believes that he is innocent and does not deserve such a castigation react un-lengthy and accuses his boss of special hatred for him and all the people from his area and poses on his perception to all who like him. This bread will fell mutual distrust and hatred that effect productivity and administration function in the organization.
To avoid this ugly situation, it is important that healthy man to man instruction be very clearly stated. This effectiveness of giving clear instruction depends on the following.
- The instruction should be complete and indicating what should be done, the quality of performance desired and the time when the assignment is to be finished.
- Compliance should be reasonable. That is with the capacity of the person receiving the instruction under conditions prevailing at the time
- The instruction should be clear by the executive giving the instruction that is the ideas of his mind can actually be transmitted to the person being directed.
- The key point of the major instruction should be put in writing (whenever possible).
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
the main aim of the study is to examine the role of communication as an indispensable tool for effective administration. Specific objectives of the study are:
- To examine if effective communication affect organizational performance.
- To ascertain if organization environment affect communication
- To verify if communication difficulties affect various management cadre in organization.
1.4. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
In this research work some hypothesis are formulated by the use of the null and the alternative hypothesis. For the purpose of testing. The null hypothesis is denoted by Ho, while the alternative hypothesis is denoted by Hi:
Ho: organizational performance does not depend on effective communication.
Hi: Organizational performance depends on effective communication.
Ho: Organizational environment does not affect communication
Hi: Organizational environment affect communication
Ho: A Communication difficulty does not affect various management levels in organization.
Hi: communication difficulties affect various management levels in organization.
1.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The organization function by means of collective actions of people et each individual is capable of taken independent action which may not be reported properly to other people who ought to know about it. Good communication are required to achieve a coordinated result.
Effective communication are to brings about good relationship between individual workers and management, because histerms and condition of work are clearly specified in his contract of employment and in employee handbook..
Communication provides a suitable atmosphere for attainment of organization goods, boosting and morals of workers and higher productivity.
1.6. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
The following operation terms of ideas facts, opinions, information and understanding it is the transfer or transmission of information, and understanding from one person to another.
Communication may also be referred to as a meaningful interaction among human being, more especially, it is also a process by which meaning are read and perceived an understanding. A word communication can be refer to as a transfer of ideafrom the sender to the receiver. Communication can also be seen as an indispensable management tool. Any means that an individual uses to transfer meaning, ideas, feeling, emotion or attitude, to, other ,in, communication.
Effective: The accomplishment of the desired goal.
Administration: The framework of an organization under which the employees work. It sees the day to day meaning of an organization.
Employees: The employees can be defined as the personnel who are hired for a specific term or other wise for the performance of duties for certain reward. Employees are manpower of any organization and they are normally referred to as “The work force” that is human resources.
Transfer: The movement of an employee from one job to another. One unit to another or one shift to another and may involve a new geographical location. It may be imitated by the organization.
Demotion: This is a type of transfer involving a cut in pay, status, privileges or opportunity. It may result from organization staff reduction, disciplinary penalties, or the liabilities of the employees to perform adequately in a particular job.
Promotion: this is a type of transfer involving higher pay. Increased responsibilities, more privileges, increased benefits and greater potentials.
Receiver: the person whom a message is sent
Communicator: The person sending the message
Jargon: Special language development by different.
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