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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page        --          --          --          --          --          --          --          --          1

Declaration      --          --          --          --          --          --          --          --          ii

Certification    --          --          --          --          --          --          --          --          iii

Dedication      --          --          --          --          --          --          --          --          iv

Acknowledgments      --          --          --          --          --          --          --          v

Table of Contents       --          --          --          --          --          --          --          vi-viii

List of Tables  --          --          --          --          --          --          --          --          ix

Abstract          --          --          --          --          --          --          --          --          x

 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1              Background of the Study       --          --          --          --          --          1

1.2       Statement of the Problem       --          --          --          --          --          5

1.3       Objectives of the Study          --          --          --          --          --          6

1.4       Research Questions     --          --          --          --          --          --          6

1.5       Justification of the Study       --          --          --          --          --          6

1.6       Delimitation of the Study       --          --          --          --          --          7

1.7       Limitation of the Study          --          --          --          --          --          7

1.8       Definitions of Terms   --          --          --          --          --          --          8

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1       Review of Concepts   --          --          --          --          --          --          9

2.1.1    Newspapers     --          --          --          --          --          --          --          9

2.1.2    Photographs    --          --          --          --          --          --          --          11

2.1.3    Photojournalism          --          --          --          --          --          --          13

2.2       Opinions Review        --          --          --          --          --          --          15

2.2.1    Use of Photographs on Pages of Newspapers                        --          --          15

2.2.2    Roles of Photographs on Newspaper Pages   --          --          --          17

2.2.3    Selection of Photographs for use on Newspaper Pages          --          18

2.2.4    Aesthetic Qualities of Photographs on Newspaper Pages      --          20

2.2.5   Ethics and Photographs          --          --          --          --          --          24

2.3       Review of Studies      --          --          --          --          --          --          26

2.3.1    Ijeh, P. N. (2015). An Appraisal of photojournalism Practices in

Government Newspapers in Nigeria: Insights from The Observer and

The Pointer. Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and

Social Sciences.  3. (12) pp.77-99.      --          --          --          --          26

2.3.2    Zillman, Dolf, Knobloch, Silvia and Yu, Hong-Sik (2001). Effects of

Photographs on the Selective Reading of News Reports.

Journal of Media Psychology. 1. (4) pp.302-306.       --          --          27

2.3.3    Nsikan Senam (2009). News Photographs and the Print Media

            Aesthetics. Journal of Media and Aesthetics. 2. (3) pp.50-58.                        28

2.4       Theoretical Framework           --          --          --          --          --          --          29

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Research Method        --          --          --          --          --          --          --          32

3.2       Population of the Study          --          --          --          --          --          --          32

3.3       Sample Size and Sampling Procedure            --          --          --          --          33

3.4       Content Categories    --          --          --          --          --          --          --          34

3.5       Unit Analysis  --          --          --          --          --          --          --          --          34

3.5.1    Parameter of Analysis             --          --          --          --          --          --          35

3.6.      Inter-coder Reliability             --          --          --          --          --          --          35

3.7       Method of Data Collection     --          --          --          --          --          --          37

3.8       Method of Data Analysis       --          --          --          --          --          --          37

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1       Data Presentation and Analysis          --          --          --          --          --          38

4.2       Discussion of Findings           --          --          --          --          --          --          40

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1       Summary of Findings             --          --          --          --          --          --          47

5.2       Conclusion      --          --          --          --          --          --          --          --          48

5.3       Recommendations      --          --          --          --          --          --          --          49

5.3.1    Suggestion for Further Study --          --          --          --          --          --          50

References


LISTS OF TABLES

Table        Title                                                                                                          Page

I                 Inter-coder Reliability Table         --          --          --          --          --          36

2                Formats of Photograph usage in The Punch and

                  Daily Sun Newspapers      --          --          --          --          --          --          38

3                Qualities of Photographs in the two Newspapers             --          --          39

4                Ratings of the effectiveness of photographs used in

The Punch and Daily Sun, based on their qualities.         --          --          39


ABSTRACT

This work analyses the uses of photographs by select Nigeria newspapers. Content analysis was the research technique used in the study. The population for this study was 362, while the sample size was 120. Findings show that photo editors make use of poor quality photographs due to lack of aesthetic elements in the photographs. Also, as a result of the dominant use of poor quality photographs, effectiveness of the photographs is rated low, hence, the inability of the photographs to convey meaning. Accordingly recommendation was that newspapers photojournalist should use digital camera in order to produce high quality photographs.  



 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1              Background of the Study

Communication is central to human existence as it offers everyone the opportunity to seek, process, share and store information. Wilson, (2006, p.23) affirms this fact by saying that, “Without communication, man would live a purposeless life. In fact, he would be lifeless being; unable to relate with himself and things in his environment.” Also, Wilson (1997) asserts that communication is the engine that demystifies uncertainty in a vast and challenging world. Through communication relationships are established, fears are banished, and the barriers to oneness and understanding are blast off. Communication uses various platforms such as newspapers, radio, television and new media for the achievement of its purpose (meaning sharing and creation of understanding).

Newspapers, according to Udoakah (2001), are journals of record and opinion, and as journals of record, events in the society are recorded daily, weekly or monthly depending on their frequency. According to Udoh (2015), the early newspapers were handwritten and they came in form of pamphlets (newsletters). He further asserts that on the American continent, the first newspaper named Publick Occurrences, was established in Boston in 1960.

The history of newspaper in Nigeria as stated in Senam (2014) began in the colonial era, through the efforts of one white missionary, Rev.


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