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The history of marketing dates back to early limes what appears to be only difference between what obtains now and then is that the activities of marketing of old emphasized buying and selling. Hence, little or no effects were made by the nature of wants of the consumer it was just good and services for goods and services. At the same time, the gap between production and consumption was very small and. manageable such that a producer's problem was more in production than in disposal.

Unfortunately. Due to industrial revolution which has brought, in its wake total change in creativity, thinking and improvement in genius. The result is that the problem of the producer had to transcend the only act of production to making them available to consumer. This is because the consumer has equally attained some level of sophistication in his style in his style and mode of demand for goods and services. An average consumer today is more rational and that is why he could appear as possessing what the researcher may call dynamic taste pattern" the consumer's position is also improved by the fact that not only that he has become rational but


also a critical consumer who is most unwilling to compromise the consumption of quality goods.

This phenomenon affects the way and manner which the consumer makes his demands for goods and services.

At the point the producer has learn to identify the needs and wants pattern of the typical consumer and producer goods and services to satisfy these needs. Similarly apply some marketing mix tools to attract, persuade, invoke and sustain action in the consumer. Such marketing mix elements are applied strategies to make sure that the "situation centered" or "persona! centered factors" to have results. For instance, in situation centered factory like family, serious influence is already wield on the potential consumer with result that very serious campaign would be required to make a change. This view is buttressed by Udeagha (1995:72) when he said" it is the family as an individual's basic cultural unit that shapes his consumption pattern, his attitudes towards some goods and his likes and dislike"

1.                 The family he said is made up of two types. These are family of orientation which consists of one's parents and the family of procreation as a matter of fact; promotion is one of the major


elements of marketing mix otherwise known as promo tools. The promo tools advertising, publicity, sales promotion personal selling is usually applied like other marketing processes to achieve financial consumption by the consumer within these promotional tools as identified above, advertising appears to yield more influence in the consumer than others. According to Nwosu (1990:239) one of the best definitions of advertising is that advertising mass communication which is aimed at helping people to sell goods, services, ideas, person and institution or organization.

2.                 He stressed the use of advertising as the means of reaching the respective target market or consumer group in the consumer, industrial trade and retail channels. Udeagha (Op cit.218) said advertising is a marketing promotion tool which is used to inform and educate a large audience of buyers or consumers about an organization, its product or services and to induce terms to patronize the organization that is to buy its goods.

3.                 He emphasizes that advertising share some of the above mentioned characteristics with such other promotional tools as personal selling and publicity with which an organization also tries to reach its target


members. What the scholars are emphasizing is that advertising is very indispensable and of course powerful tools recommendable to any organization for complete access and influence on audience. That is more reason why none of the other promotional tools can take the place of advertising. Differentiating advertising from other forms of promotional tools pride and Ferrell in Udeagha (lbid:348) defined advertising as a paid form of non-personal communication that is transmitted to consumers through mass media such as television, radio, newspaper, magazines etc

4.                 They said that advertising unlike publicity has identity sponsor. Advertising uses the techniques of informing, persuading, reminding and reassuring, in convincing the consumer to develop a preference for a new brand of product or an entirely new product line. As a matter of fact, advertising has not only become an integral part of our social and economic system, but has also grown over the years to assume tremendous proportions both as a business activity and social phenomena, Consumption pattern, as the name suggest can be define as the mode of people's spending on goods and services which they consume. This mode of spending is usually influenced by


"person centered factors" as learning, beliefs, education, attitude, motivation as well as "situation centered factors" as legal, religious, economic, culture, family and reference group. Consumption pattern can also be said to mean group buying behavior or spending pattern. On the part of civil servants their consumption pattern is also influenced by both "persons centered factors and situation centered factors". However, the extent it is influenced by advertising is yet uncertain. A simple examination on consumption pattern or buying behavior can give its meaning as both an act and also a process. As conceived of by Block et al in Udeagha (lbid: 73), buyer, behavior or consumer behavior consist of the "acts" or individuals directly involved in the decision process that precede and determine these acts.

5.                 He concluded that is involves such activity as the purchase of a given product, such as car, a piece of furniture or the refusal to purchase it; the choice of the given company or store as one's source of supplies of goods and services or the choice of a given institution as one's place of learning. As a process, Udeagha gave direction on why it is a process. He said that buying behavior as a process is evidenced by


various models of consumer or buyer behavior which are used to explain the purchase behavior or the buyer as a process consisting of several stages of phase. Udeagha (lbid:73) listed scholars like (Nicosia 1966): Engel Kollat and Blackwelt 1968 and Howard and Sheth (1969), Webster and Wind (1972) and Kotler (1988) as those whose models threw light on this matter and thus contributed towards a better understanding of the buyer in the market place.

6.                 As he continued, he said that although most of these authors vary in their presentation of the buyer decision process, yet marketing literature recognizes fire stages of this process, the first is that by Kotler which is composed of:

1.     Problem recognition, search pattern to be an act, it means the consumer do not have to go through the buying process. His pattern of purchase or consumption is usually based on loyalty whereby he could be for instance, a loyalist to a particular type of beer which necessarily does not require going through the buying process. The emphasis is to determine the extent the advertising influence consumption pattern no matter the perspective - as an act or process.



All over the world, both private and public sector have always maintained some workers in their employment. In the private sector these people could be designated with the common "word workers" while it attracts greater connotation in the public sector. In the public sector, worker could be called a civil servant or a public servant. The two words are just matters of nomenclature because somehow, public servant which appears to suggest workers in the employ of government (Federal, State and Local) parastatals and companies obviously has supervising ministries. Civil servant would therefore, imply carrier workers in government employ usually under supervising ministries. These workers are subject to anonymity and have guaranteed tenure. They must be loyal and must not be subjected to any act of impartiality.

Somehow, the conditions of this category of workers in government employ have for some time now attracted the attention of people charitable organization, journalist, human right organizations, private sector and general populace. The comments border on what may be described as poor condition or service which exposed the workers to all manner of danger. The worker is at mercy of very poor government


machinery to control and protect the worker. Also the question of mismanagement in government work places has assumed unmanageable dimension. This poor state of affairs in work place(s) has created more problems than solutions for the worker.

As a matter of fact, one would think that the poor condition of the worker would influence him to more rational, more sensitive and dynamic to his environment. For instance, his purchase pattern should change and adjust to became responsive to the promo-tools (advertising, personal selling publicity and sales promotion) in place. Attempt to make rational adjustments and purchases should warrant consistent response and reactions to these promo-tools especially advertising. Unfortunately, this condition does not hold due to some factors.

What appears prominent among these factors is illiteracy. In Nigeria for which Ebonyi and Enugu States is part of, the illiteracy level appears to be very high. What we are trying to say is that most of our civil servants and business community are illiterates, therefore, might not be able to read meaning and understanding into advertising and cures. Where they appear educated, it may not be right type of education that may guarantee their responsiveness to their environment. Another problem seems to be


poverty one could observe that civil servants and some business community are ranked poorest in the wider society. Out of their little stipend they are subjected to taxes and deductions of all kinds. This leaves them with little or no disposable income (dy) to make purchases. The result is that some may not be able to acquire media applications like televisions, radio, newspapers and therefore, know nothing about advertising as an unholy practice, war and deceit.

Likewise, the civil servants appear to have lost all their immunities, responsibilities, privileges and rights. They no longer enjoy their privileges of anonymity, impartial treatment and guaranteed tenure hence, flinching loyalty. All these occasioned by political instability appear to affect the general psyche of worker and business community and do not in any way place them in better position to give attention to advertising messages. Sometimes, people show obvious preference for other promo-tools against advertising.

It also appears that advertising has been poorly applied especially in this part of the world, such that its purpose of information, education and persuading the public is undetermined. Media mix could be another constraint to appreciation of advertising. It is the feelings of the researchers


that some of the problems enumerated could seriously deter advertising from creating the needed awareness on the lives of civil servants and business community their purchases. Repeat purchases and general attitude following consumption. At least they all point to communication and it is a serious phenomenon in this study.


The major purpose of this study is to identify to what extent advertising can influence the consumption pattern of civil servants and business community in Ebonyi and Enugu States. In more specific terms this study shall seek to do the following;

1.                 To determine whether consumption pattern of individuals or group can really be influenced by any factor

2.                 To find out if civil servants and business community are even aware of advert practice.

3.                 To determine if poverty and illiteracy can affect the perceived influence of civil servants and business community consumption by advertising


4.                 To determine whether there is a class of civil servants and business advert messages influence more than others

5.                 To find out the type of advert that can really influence civil servants and business commuity and to what extent the concept of media mix can contribute to achieve this purpose

6.                 To determine whether the perceived loss of some rights to impartiality, guaranteed tenure status by civil servants can really affect their disposition to promo-tools.

7.                 To establish if the perceived ability of advert to yield more impact on civil servants and business community consumption pattern against other promo-tools is real merely psychological.


In the context of the following objectives the following hypothesis grouped into null (Ho) and alternative (Hi) were advanced.

Ho (null) Advert activities have no influence on the consumption pattern of civil servants and business community.


Ho (null)

Poverty as a factor does not affect civil servants and business community response to advert messages which in turn affects its ability to influence their consumption patterns

Ho (null)

Illiteracy as a factor does not affect civil servants and business community response to advert messages which in turn affects its ability to influence their consumption patterns

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