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1.1 Background of the Study
Recruiting salesforce is costly in terms of both time and money. Apart from the direct costs of advertising and interview expenses, there are the hidden costs of executive time consumed during the recruiting period, together the cost of staff used to process the various stages of the recruitment campaign.
People are the most important component of any firms’ ability to cope with the increasing demands of a complex business environment; high caliber staff will overcome difficulties and seize opportunities that their less able colleagues fail to discern. From that general statement, the conclusion that the firm should recruit the most able individuals for any given task is inescapable.
However, in order to do this, the limitations of the job within the overall management structure will have to be carefully studied since it is pointless to recruit individuals who are too highly qualified or able for the job that the organization wants to fit; they will become discontented and leave.
The marketing environment in which companies operate implies that salesforce will be needed as never before to perform a vital but changing function. Thus, according to Lidstone (1996:7), selling is like art, which mirrors the age in which it is practiced. So, where once the salesman was a jack of all trades; selling everything to everyone, he must now specialize, performing fewer tasks but more effectively. Some companies are appointing salesmen to deal with just one major customer or to look after a specialist sector or a market. Jackson (1972) defined recruitment as securing a supply of possible candidates for jobs in an enterprise. It is the first stage in the process of staffing in an organization which continues with selection and ands with the placement of an individual (Man or Woman) in a job. Recruitment begins with information about the vacancies to be filled, and then determining the sources of the different kinds of human skills required to fill the vacancies.
Recruitment is thus, a human resource function. It is a task that is performed continuously, sometimes in a highly independent way, but no matter the situation, in collaboration with the personnel department. The most important resource which an organization or even a nation can have is its human resources (Hammid, 1983:9). Finding the men with requisite skill, knowledge and experience to fill appropriate positions in the organization is not an easy task, taking note of the aim every staffing practice should have. Haimmann, et al (1978:283) sees its purpose as to achieve optimal use of human resources through rational human resources systems and programmes. They see it as being continuous because an enterprise needs a constant supply or capable employees moving through the system from recruitment to retirement.
Staffing and other recruitment practices are thus, not performed once at ago but are a continuous exercise. The people that are recruited are the vital force of the organization, more valuable to it, in many ways, then efficient operational mention in the production process. Yet, an effective recruitment programme is not at all simple, especially if the labour requirements of the organization are diverse; for it is necessary not only to discover appropriate sources but also to compare their value that is to determine which of them that may be most satisfactory. That is why most authors, see the staffing exercise as embracing recruitment, selection and placement.
However, one may ask, how does a sales manager go about getting things done through and with other people after recruiting candidates for the sales job?
One of the ways is through the motivation of sales personnel. The motivating function is variously identified as encouraging employees towards high performance. It creates condition so that persons can get “self-administered rewards” such as satisfaction from accomplishing a challenging task.
Why should salesforce want to cooperate and contribute toward accomplishing marketing goals? How does a manage motivate his subordinates? In answering these questions, there should be the recognition of individual
differences. While the individual has many things in common with his fellow men, his particular needs must be taken into account at all stages of growth and development. A need can be seen as the conscious or unconscious experiences of want (Ejiofor, 1989:166) people form an organization or join existing ones with a view of satisfying certain needs of theirs, which individually they could not and may never meet. Therefore, within organizations, individuals behave in certain ways and pursue particular courses of action in order to satisfy these needs. Since behaviour is directed toward need satisfaction, it becomes strategically important to know what people really desire from a job; hence, a worker with the ability to perform could efficiently, increase his performance, if adequately motivated.
Motivation is the will to achieve a goal in order to meet a personal need (Williams, 1977:160), while Robert Appliby sees it as the “way urges aspirations, drives, and needs to human beings direct or control or explain their behaviour.
Motivation can be either positive or negative. Positive motivation, sometimes called “anxiety-reducing motivation”, or the carrot approach”, offers something valuable to the workers. Examples include pay, praise, and possibility of becoming a permanent employee as rewards for acceptable performance.
Negative motivation, on the other hand, which is often called the “Stick approach”, uses threats of demotion if performance is unacceptable. Each type has its place in organizations, depending on the prevailing situation. For individuals, the greatest satisfaction and the strongest motivation are derived from achievement, responsibility, growth, advancement, work, and earned recognition. Prominent among the motivating factors in any organization are wages, salary, incentives and fringe benefits. Managers believe that if all these things are provided their (workers) favourable attitude and job satisfaction will be high, thereby, bringing about greater productivity.
Historical Background of Berger Paints Nigeria Plc.
In 1958, the company was formed in Nigeria, under the name of British
Paints (W.A) Limited. The first paint factory in Nigeria was built by British Paints and started production in Ikeja in March 1962. In 1969, Berger, Jenson and Nicholson (B.J.N) merged with British Paints.
In Nigeria, both companies continued to operate as British Paints from Ikeja while B. J. N. had their paint factory in Port Harcourt. In 1972, the two companies in Nigeria were merged and the new name:
The company operates two paint factories at Ikeja and Port-Harcourt. Berger Paints Nigeria Limited then was an associate of Berger, Jenson and Nicholson Limited of London, U.K. now known as Jenson and Nicholson, a member of “UB INTERNATIONAL LIMITED” which is one of the largest paint manufacturing companies in the world.
Berger, Jenson and Nicholosn was then in turn a wholly owned subsidiary of Farwarke Hoechst A. G. of Frankfurt Germany, one of the largest chemical companies in the world; manufacturers with a wide range of products including pharmaceuticals, plastics, fertilizers and paint. Thus, the company is backed by vast resources of technology research and management skills.
In 1973, in accordance with the wishes of the Nigerian Government the company offered 40% of its shares to the public with an offer of 1,152,592 shares of 50 kobo each. This was rapidly taken up by Nigerian Nationals, 10% of these shares were taken up by staff of the company.
Berger paints was the first paint manufacturing company to be quoted on the Nigerian Stock Exchange.
Further, in order to meet the requirements of the Nigerian Enterprises Promotion Decree 1977, the foreign shareholders sold on the Nigerian Stock Exchange another 1,918,026 shares to the Nigerian public.
At a selling price of 80 kobo per share, the sale was over-subscribed 1.5 times. This is an indication of how the public view the value of this company. 10% of the shares again were reserved for staff and were completely taken up.
To this and, the company in 1977, totally complied with the Decree and 60% of the company’s shares were now owned by Nigerians. Berger Paints U.K. under a Technical Agreement on a continuing basis supplies Berger Nigeria Technology and Training facilities.
In 1990, Berger Paints Nigeria Plc offered rights issue of 10,800,000 ordinary shares of 50k each to existing shareholders in August 1990 on the basis of one ordinary share for every three ordinary shares held at 100k per share and the shares were oversubscribed.
The Company Organization
The running of the company is the direct responsibility of the Managing Director who has split the company organization into three major operating groups retaining marketing marine/protection and administration under his direct control.
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