THE ROLE OF THE INSTITUTION OF HISBA IN THE SHARIA IMPLEMENTING STATES IN NORTHERN NIGERIA

THE ROLE OF THE INSTITUTION OF HISBA IN THE SHARIA IMPLEMENTING STATES IN NORTHERN NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

This research is concerned with the role Hisba is expected to play regarding Sharia implementation in some states of Northern Nigeria and the extent that the Hisba played the role. Hisba evolved during the time of the Prophet SAW and it developed during the time of the classical Caliphs and later generations particularly the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. It was during the Umayyads that Hisba became an independent constitutional agency and this continued up to this moment. The Hisba existed alongside the police, the army as well as the ombudsman institution (Mazalim) throughout Islamic civilization including (lately) the Sokoto Caliphate, where Hisba was not a prominent feature of that government as a Constitutional agency. Sharia was part of Muslim life in Nigeria prior to British colonization which gradually eroded Sharia till it was finally restricted to personal law. In 1999, Zamfara State enacted a Law that enables courts to apply Sharia Criminal law and in 2003 the State established the Hisba with the aim to enhance Sharia implementation in the State and nine other states followed Zamfara, they include Kano and Jigawa. Ten states in Nigeria established Hisba because they thought it was imperative for a proper implementation of Sharia and because it was obvious that Nigeria Police was not willing to implement the provisions of the Sharia Penal Codes. Three out of these ten states enacted laws to establish Hisba as Commission, Board and Committee respectively; they are Zamfara, Kano and Jigawa. In five of the remaining sev


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