RIGHT OF EXPRESSION IN THE NIGERIAN CONSTITUTION: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

RIGHT OF EXPRESSION IN THE NIGERIAN CONSTITUTION: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

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ABSTRACT

The entrenchment of the right of expression as a fundamental human right in Nigeria could be traced to the Independence Constitution of 1960 and the Republican Constitution of 1963 have provisions for the protection of fundamental human rights. The 1979 and the 1999 constitution went further by providing a Bill of Right. This entrenchment of human right provisions in our constitution was aimed at creating a society which protects political freedom as well as the social and economic wellbeing of Nigerians. However, despite the guarantee of fundamental rights and liberties in the several Nigerian Constitutions since 1960, the country has had the misfortune of military interruptions in its polity. This had profound and far reaching effects on the promotion and protection of democratic value such as freedom of expression among Nigerians. This research examines the legal framework within which freedom of expression is practical in Nigeria, due to the fact that concept such as freedom of expression are subject to various philosophical interpretations. It gives insight into the genesis of right of expression in the modern jurisprudence and provides a proper conceptual framework on human right from which freedom of expression is derivable. The study also examines the judicial attitude in Nigeria towards the right of expression. Also, the limitations to the right of expression, premised in substantive and procedural laws are also considered. The practical relevance of social justice in the enforcement of this right is carefully examined.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                                                           PAGES

Title Page

Declaration      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           ii

Certification    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iii

Dedication      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iv

Acknowledgements    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           v

Abstract          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           vii

Table of Contents       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -          viii

Table of Cases -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           xi

Table of Statutes         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           xiv

Abbreviations  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           xvi

 [

CHAPTER ONE:  GENERAL INTRODUCTION        

1.0     Introduction        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           1

1.1     Statement of the Problem            -           -           -           -           -           -           3

1.2     Research Questions                     -           -           -           -           -           -           4

1.3     Research Methodology   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           6

1.4     Scope of the Study          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           6

1.5     Significance of the Study            -           -           -           -           -           -           7

1.6     Literature Review            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           8

1.7     Definition of Terms         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           26

1.8     Conclusion           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           28

CHAPTER TWO:  ORIGIN OF RIGHTS OF EXPRESSION IN NIGERIA

2.1   Introduction        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           21

2.2   Definition of Rights of Expression         -           -           -           -           -           33

2.2   Definition of the Right of Expression in Nigeria and the Nigerian Press           33

2.3   Origin of Right of Expression in Nigeria and the Nigerian Press           -           37

2.4  Challenges Faced by the Nigerian Press             -           -           -           -           47

2.5   Right of Expression under the Military Regime -           -           -           -           54

2.5   Conclusion           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           62

CHAPTER THREE:   RIGHTS OF EXPRESSION UNDER THE NIGERIA CONSTITUTION

3.0   Introduction        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           64

3.1   Right of Expression in the 1999 Constitution (as amended)      -           -           65

3.2   Right of Expression under the Nigerian Television Authority Act, 1976.          69

3.3   Right of Expression in the News Agency of Nigeria Act, 1976 -           -           72

3.4   Right of Expression in the Newspaper Act, 1964           -           -           -           75

3.5   The Freedom of Information Act, 2011 -           -           -           -           -           78

3.6   Conclusion           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           87

  

CHAPTER FOUR: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN THE RIGHT OR EXPRESSION IN NGERIA

4.0   Introduction        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           88

4.1   Enforcement of the Right of Expression in Nigeria.       -           -           -           88

4.2   Defamation as a Challenge to the Right or Expression   -           -           -           92

4.3   Types of Defamation       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           100

4.4   Distinction between Libel and Slander   -           -           -           -           -           104

4.5   Defences to a Charge of Defamation      -           -           -           -           -           105

4.6   The Crime of Sedition     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           112

4.7   Sedition as a Challenge to the Right of Expression in Nigeria               -           115

4.8   Conclusion           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           126

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

5.0       Introduction    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           128

5.1       Summary                     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           128

5.2       Recommendations      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           132

5.3       Conclusion -    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           134


TABLE OF CASES

                                                                                                            PAGES

 

Adewole & Ors v. Jakande (1981) I NCLR 262        -           -           -           67

Archbishop Okogie v. A.G.Lagos State (1981) 2 NCLR 337CA       -           67

Arthur Nwankwo v. The State (1985) 6a N.C.L.R. 337CA    -           -      120, 122

Badejo v. Federal Ministry of Education (1996) 8 N.W.L.R.pt.464.

p.(15) at (41) Sc.         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           76

Bakare v. Olumide (1969) 2 All NLR 321     -           -           -           -           90,104

Balley v. President of Nigeria (1982) 3 NCLR 658    -           -           -           90

Bradenbourg v. Ohio


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