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BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In any organization, there are functional objectives from department to department, all these functional objectives should be directly tailored towards the attainment of the organization main goal for the desired objective of an establishment to be actual, the employees whose efforts are the keys to this attainment must be catered for. It is therefore the responsibility of the management to create a conducive environment and also make the employees feel that they belong to the organization so that they will put in their best one of the devices which are used by the management to spur the workers to action is motivation. Motivation is implied in managing, because it involves the creation and maintenance of an environment in which individuals working together in group are led to accomplish an objective.
A consideration of what motivates people is central to effective managing. Therefore, motivation according to Barelson and Steiner (1973) is defined as “A general term applying in the entire class of drives desires, needs, wishes and similar force” it is an inner state that energizes, activates, or moves, and that directs or channels behaviour towards goals. It also refers to the way in which urges, desires, needs, aspirations which are basically tension symptoms occurring within individuals are harnessed and channeled towards smooth, and co-operative behaviour towards the satisfaction of physical emotion or social needs.
The researcher is interested in the application of motivation of company that is the question may be asked. Do we ever settle to wonder why some companies recruit better application than others, why the private sector sis relatively speaking more efficient or perhaps, more effectively organized than the public sector; why some establishments are more productive than other; why some forms make profit, while others are folding up; why? Is it possible to accept with this simple phrase our neglected working condition?
Motivation of workers, the assent comes from within and like at Kinson (1954) suggested in his research on safety needs anytime this safety need is threatened; the individuals safety becomes paramount not withstanding the hierarchy. It musty be mentioned from the beginning that motivation is concerned with the “why” of human behaviour. Why do people do things? This question can be particularly answered with an understanding of human motivation. An unsatisfied need is the starting point in the process of motivation.
A deficiency of something within the individuals, it is the first link in the chain of events leading to behaviour. The unsatisfied need causes tension (physically or psychological) within the individual leading the individual to engage in some kind of behaviours to satisfy the need and thereby reduce the tension. The manager’s perspective, a person works hard; the person sustains a space of hard work, the person’s behaviour is self directed towards important goals, thus motivation involves efforts, persistent and goals. There are many theories of motivation that managers can use to improve their understanding of why people behave as they do. None provides a universally accepted explanation of human behaviour, people are far too complex “The most popular theories is not to identify the one best approach” rather it is to introduce ideas that managers can use to develop their motivational approach.
The two most discussed theories arte content theory and process theory. Content theories are concerned with identifying what is within a individual or the work environment that sustain behaviour that is what specific things motivate people. On the other hand, process theory tries to explain and describe the process of how behaviour is directed and finally stopped process theory attempt to define the major necessity for explaining choice (should I work hard) effort (how much do I need to work and persistence) (how long do I have to keep this pace).
Since motivation is important to management for three reasons, firstly, employees on the job must be motivated to perform at an acceptable level; secondly, managers themselves must be motivated to do a good job. Thirdly, employees managerial and non-managerial must be motivated to join the organization. In view of these two content theories Maslow need hierarchy and Herzery’s which are valence and expectancy will be used. A widely accepted approach to motivation is the expectancy model, also known as expectancy theory, that was developed by Victor H Vroom based on expanded and refined by porter and lawler and others. Vroom explains that motivation is a product of how much one wants something and one’s estimate of the probability that a certain action will lead to it.
This relationship is stated in the following formulas’
Valence X Expectancy
(Strength of one’s desire for something) (Probability of getting it within certain action) = motivation (Strength of drive toward as action)
Valence refers to strength of a person’s performance for one outcome in relation to others. It is an expression of amount of one’s desire for a goal, for example if an employees strongly wants increase in salary or promotion, it is said that the increase that the increase in salary or promotion has high valency to the employee. The valences arise out of each employee’s internal self as conditioned by experience, so it all is very substantially from person to person. People may have positive and negative preferences for an outcome; it may be positive as well as negative.
The different models of motivation are the expectancy model and behaviour modification, the expectancy model states that motivation is a product of hoe much one wants something’s and the probability that a certain will lend to it. Motivation is implied in management because it involves the creation and maintenance of an environment in which individuals working together in group are led to an objective. A consideration of what motivates people is central to effective managing. Therefore, “motivation” according to Barelson and Steiner which is stated above that is a general term applying to the entire classes of drives, desires, needs, whishes and similar force” it is an inner state that activates or moves and directs behaviour toward goals. It also refers to the ways in which desired needs which are basically tension symptom acquiring within an individual and toward smooth and co-operative behaviour and action are motivated in the sense that they are directed towards the satisfaction of physical emotion of social needs.
Among the ways of acquiring an organizational goal in motivation, motivation is a problem in an organization because the extend to which an employee is motivated determines the level of his or her productivity or performance and full utilization of his potentiality obtained for attainment of the common objective, motivation by Barelson and Steiner, that is to say that motivation factors boost the moral of employees and determines their productivity level. For any organization or company to achieve their goal, they must lay emphasis on motivation. The management must ensure that there is strict compliance with its rules by its employees and also direct its employees not only to do what they should do but how it should be done.
To make the employee perform effectively the management has to know what can motivate workers to use his or her potentials. In view of the relevance of motivation in enhancing staffs productivity in business organization. It has become necessary to undertake this research with special focus on NNPC.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
When good working conditions are neglected, obviously unskillfulness service, ineffectiveness, inefficiency, corruption, absenteeism, frustration and dissatisfaction take over the system. Added to these are inadequate assignment of workers into jobs, labour immobility, migration of workers arising from various forms of discrimination inequality in variation in working hours, more so, the country has been adulterated with ethnic charisma, tribal contusion, quota system, religious intolerance federal character so much that we do now sacrifice our sense of study so selfish ideological misdirection. All these problems have collectively reduced our productivity.
Tallany of Nigerian workers, Oyegbola the then minister of Natural Planning (1901) noted that Nigerians are so lazy to the extents that are only interested in money and not their work. If Nigeria is to achieve productivity of any form, she continued, our workers should be more dedicated to their jobs instead of asking for money always” that was in 1901 yet the situation has not change, hence, the question how Nigerian workers can be genuinely concerned about their take real.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Motivational problem is any organization are attributable to irregular payment of salaries lack of job security of junior workers, delayed promotion, lack of staff training and development opportunities to mentioned a few. The effects of those are very chronic on an organization, bearing the research problem, in mind this study will try to derive into and has a critical analysis of motivation in enhancing staff productivity in business organization, taking Fan Mille as a case study. However, among the objective and aims of the study are included the following;
1. To give answers to these chronic problems arising from company so that they will be able to motivate their workers.
2. To examining the way of motivating staff in NNPC.
3. To really examine the native and level of motivation in NNPC.
4. To evaluate the relevance of motivation in enhancing staff productivity in NNPC.
5. To evaluate the relevance of motivation in enhancing staff productivity in NNPC.
6. To determine the effectiveness of companies or organizations in motivating its employees with a view to proffering possible recommendation for a more effective way of motivating employees in NNPC.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research word is designed to offer assistance to the researchers, readers/students and organizations as a whole for the researcher is offer the researcher an arena through which the practical aspect of motivational will be ascertained on the part of the readers/students who read this study with keen interest and rapt attention, they will be able to know the nature and level of motivation and it will also serve as a source of information for them, now or in the near future with respect to motivation problems.
Generally, any public organization (Nigeria National petroleum Commission) will be placed through this project in a better position to know what motivate their employees and effects of this on their staff productivity. The effective implantation of this motivation will definitely boost the moral of their workers, activate and incite them to action for their earlier Attainment of the organization objective/goals.
1.What are the methods used by employer to motivate employees in NNPC?
2. What are the impacts of motivation to employee work performance in NNPC?
3.What are the relationship between motivation and work performance in NNPC?
4.Which motivation theory has direct relationship to employee work performance in NNPC?
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research prone into the relevance of motivation in enhancing staff productivity in a public organization using Nigeria National petroleum commission(NNPC) in Edo State as a case study. It will also focus on management role in working staff improvement in any business organization. The scope of the study will dwell within the limits of determining the extent to which various types or ways of motivation has positive effect on business development.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
In this part of the project, it is necessary to define items as they apply to this study. This is done to enhanced clarity and hence to avoid ambiguity and misinterpretation that may arise.
Needs: Need in this study will therefore means, any desire or expectation of workers, if available, that will make them to identify with the goals of the organization.
Incentive: In this project, incentive means something that activates, arouses, incites or encourages a person to increase his/her capacity towards work.
Staff: This means employees working in a salaries employment and to whom other incentives are accorded.
Enhance: This means to make, to appear greater or better or to increase the productivity.
Productivity: This means the rate or efficiency of work
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