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This study was carried to examine the effects of two teaching methods on academic performance of senior secondary school in home economics with a particular reference to selected secondary schools in Onitsha South Local Government Area of Anmbra State. To achieve this objective, four research questions and two research hypotheses were formulated to guide this study. The survey research design was adopted for the study. The data collected were analyzed using T-test statistical method to test the research hypotheses. A well-structured questionnaire was used as the major instrument for data collection from the respondents in senior secondary school students in selected secondary schools in Onitsha South Local Government Area of Anmbra State. After the careful analysis of the data, the following findings were revealed that there is a significant relationship between the use of discussion method of teaching and students’ academic performance in home economics; there is a significant relationship between the use of demonstration method and students’ academic performance in home economics; there is a significant relationship between the use of questioning method and students’ academic performance in home economics. The study was concluded with recommendations that education should be entertaining and fun to students not boredom or just a duty. The researcher recommended that the teaching would be highly effective if the teacher starts to use innovative teaching methods like the discussion and demonstration method. Hence, bias in selection of teaching methods by teachers in areas in which they possess exclusive monopoly knowledge should be avoided to improve students’ academic performance and teachers should create an atmosphere conducive to learning in order to enhance the development of students’ learning experiences.
1.1 Background of the Study
Teaching method is the main factor necessary for impacting knowledge to the students or pupils. A number of methods have been tested and agreed upon by educators as good. None of the methods is however, perfect and effective for all situations but each of the methods or a combination of them can be used at any particular time to impact our subject matter (Onwuba, 1983). In the past, few methods are used in impacting knowledge into the pupils which sometimes make them boring.
Callahur et al (1977) noted that the method by which the teacher presents his/her materials to the learners and engages them in the task at hand is very important. Methodology is very vital in every teaching and learning situation. This is because, for effective teaching and learning to take place, the skillful teacher needs to use the many different methods and techniques at his command. Even though there is a great diversity in teaching methods and techniques, there is no one of them that can be regarded as the best for every teaching situation (Onwuka 1982).
A carefully designed teaching method can work wonders in making learning more effective. The success in the use of the method depends on intelligent analysis of the educational purposes, the pupils in the class, the curriculum, and content of the moment or the type of subject matter being taught (Brown 1990).
There is an increase in social concern over the performance of students in school examinations. People tend to agree that student’s performance has been a threat to the students and the entire society. This is exemplified by the poor cognitive performance of students particularly in home economics has been very poor (Igbokwe, 1995).
Home Economics is one of the compulsory prevocational subjects taught at the Junior Secondary Education level in Nigeria educational system. According to Anyakoha (2007), Home Economics is a skill oriented field of study that is expected to equip learners with survival skills that make for self-reliance, employment and paid employment. Occupational skills are best understood as competency on resourceful skills capable of steering an individual to be self-reliant, independent and productive in meeting lives challenges. Creese, (1976) said occupational skills are life survival skills which an individual needs to function effectively and face the challenges of life. Occupational skills in Home Economics include food and nutrition skills, home management skills and clothing and textile skills. By teaching occupational skills Home Economics Education Program enables an individual to learn, explore and prepare for a job or trade. Thus Home Economics could play a significant role in achieving the goals of the National Economic and Development Strategy (NEEDS). These goals include wealth creation, employment generation, reduction of poverty, elimination of corruption and the general reorientation of values.
Academic performance connotes performance in a school subject as symbolized by a score or marks on the achievement test (Epunnam, 1999); while retention of learning according to Momoh-Olle (1999) is the repeated performance by a learner of the behaviour earlier acquired, elicited after an interval of time. It is affected by the degree of original learning, the methods of learning and learners’ memory capacity among others (Demmert 2001). Performance of students in home economics is defined as the learning outcomes of the students which include knowledge, skills and ideas acquired and retained through his/her course of studies within and outside the classroom situation (Epunnam, 1999; Adepoju, 2011). It is quantified by a measure of student’s academic standing in relation to those of other students of the same age (Adelola, 2004). The academic performance of students in home economics is a function of several factors which are inter-related. These factors are either internal or external. That is, it is either within the control of the individual or outside his/her control.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Evidence abound that the implementation of the secondary school home economics programme in the country over the years has left much to be desired. Students’ performances over the years appear not to be impressive probably due to so many factors influencing academic performance in home economics. Njoku (1992) once observed the massive failure rate in examination and the author attributed this failure rate to several factors.
Observation has also shown that many students that had written home economics examinations appeared not to perform too impressively. Furthermore, the alarming failure rate that is widely speculated has engaged the minds of so many stakeholders as to what could possibly be responsible for the poor performances in home economics examination. Literatures have it that there are several factors that could account for students’ academic performance and some of the notable factors reported include: teachers’ qualification, teaching experience, location of schools, school type, instructional materials and teaching strategies.
The development of teaching methods is as old and closely associated with evolution of mankind. Since methodology is essential to academic achievement, it could be noted that two teaching methods have more effects on junior secondary school students than one method. This study therefore, intends to find out the effects of two teaching method on academic performance of senior secondary school students in Home Economics.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to examine the effects of two teaching methods on academic performance of senior secondary school in home economics. The specific objectives include the following:
1. To assess the relationship between the use of discussion method of teaching and students’ academic performance in home economics.
2. To examine the relationship between the use of demonstration method and students’ academic performance in home economics.
3. To determine the relationship between the use of questioning method and students’ academic performance in home economics.
4. To ascertain the relationship between the use of assignment method and students’ academic performance in home economics.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were stated to guide this study:
1) What is the relationship between the use of discussion method of teaching and students’ academic performance in home economics?
2) What is the relationship between the use of demonstration method and students’ academic performance in home economics?
3) What is the relationship between the use of questioning method and students’ academic performance in home economics?
4) What is the relationship between the use of assignment method and students’ academic performance in home economics?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following research hypotheses were formulated to guide this study:
H0: There is no significant relationship between the use of discussion method of teaching and students’ academic performance in home economics.
H1: There is a significant relationship between the use of discussion method of teaching and students’ academic performance in home economics.
H0: There is no relationship between the use of demonstration method and students’ academic performance in home economics.
H1: There is a relationship between the use of demonstration method and students’ academic performance in home economics.
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is expected that the findings of this study will be of immense benefit not only to the researcher but also to numerous people in the society and in the educational sector. The findings will be of great importance to students, in that; they will be well informed about various teaching methods, and the effects will be on their academic performance.
Findings will be of great importance to educationist both private and public stakeholders, teachers. It will help increase awareness and understanding the use of the most of the teaching methods and provide feedback on the teaching competences in most commonly used teaching methods as a basis for improvement in instructional practice to enhance performance.
Curriculum designers, educational planner’s policy makers as well as government need empirical data on the overall teaching method and activity of teaching competence of government teachers in senior secondary schools to facilitate proper curriculum policies and programmes for effective teaching and learning.
Findings of his study will be of great benefit to school counsellors for proper guidance on effective teaching methods to be adopted according to the needs of the students that could positively influence teaching and learning.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this research is on the effects of two teaching methods on academic performance of senior secondary school students in home economics with a particular reference to selected secondary schools in Onitsha South Local Government Area of Anmbra State.
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