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The focus of this study is on how the manufacturing industries in Kaduna metropolis have
impacted on the development of the area during the period 1957-2007. And, the main areas it
has impacted the city include: migration, urban economy, urban development, spatial patterns,
class-formation, effects of Kaduna‟s growth on its immediate hinterland. Thus, we attempt to
answer the question: In what ways did the manufacturing industry contribute to the
development of the Kaduna metropolis?
This is significant because of the shift in economic importance from agriculture to
manufacturing that has led to the transformation of Kaduna metropolis especially in spatial
terms; values, attitudes and population increase of the residents. For example, within a decade
Kaduna almost had a fourfold growth from 39,000 in 1952 to 149,000 in 1963. The demand
for a workforce in the industries and the consequent boom in the commercial and service
sectors account for this rapid growth in the area. Equally important, is the emergence and
rapid growth of satellite villages around the urban core of Kaduna. Of these villages, Makera
and Kakuri, were transformed from rural communities into cosmopolitan sub-urban areas due
to the concentration of the textile factories in the area. Therefore, Kaduna during this period
grew from a military garrison and administrative town into an industrial city, which was
commonly known as the „Manchester of Nigeria‟.
GENERAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The aim of this chapter is to introduce the study, Urbanization and Industrialization
in Nigeria: A Case Study of Kaduna Metropolis, 1957-2007. To achieve this objective the
chapter will be organized as follows: Introduction; the aims and objectives of the study; the
statement of the Research problem; Scope of the study; Justification of the study; Literature
Review; Theoretical Framework; Methodology of the Study; Limitation of the study; and
Notes on Source.
Industrialization can be defined as the extensive introduction of the latest scientific and
technological achievements in production in the comprehensive technical re-equipment of the
natural economy5. Specifically, in Kaduna this process of introducing scientific and
technological achievements in production led to the establishment of a factory equipped with
14,000 spindles and 300 automatic looms, costing the Northern Regional Government
£1,250,000 in 1957. Thus, the Kaduna Textiles Limited (KTL) was established6. This was the
first large scale manufacturing industry in Kaduna. Subsequently, other large scale
establishment that employed many people in the mass production of industrial or consumer
goods were also established. These factories include Paper products, printing and publishing,
brewery, car assembly plant, Asbestos-Cements Products, Fertilizers and Petroleum Refinery
It is in this light that the study will focus on the interrelationship between urban
growth and industrial development in Kaduna metropolis. This is because the challenge of
5 Tyaguneko V.L.(ed) Industrialization of Developing Countries, p.18
6See: Paden J, Ahmadu Bello: Sardauna of Sokoto, p.252; and E. Oyedele, “Colonial Urbanization in Northern Nigeria: Kaduna, 1913-1966” Ph.D Thesis, 1987.
cities in the developing world can be seen in the unprecented rates of urban growth and
industrialization in combination with poverty7. Hence, the essence of this research will be to
examine the impact of the manufacturing industries to the development of Kaduna metropolis,
from a historical perspective.
Significantly, a lot of factors explain the failure of the industrial sector. First is the
capital intensive nature of technology being adopted in the industries. These industries are to a
great extent skilled oriented. Consequently, inability to absorb labor influx from the rural
areas that are mostly unskilled. Second, is the high dependence of the industries on export.
This dependence is particularly in the area of capital, technical know-how and machinery.
Also, this dependence factor makes the industrial sector seriously vulnerable to international
crisis, such as economic depression. Thirdly, is the diverse internal contradictions, that
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