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The relationship between home-based environment factors and the academic performance of ND II secretarial administrative students IN akwa ibom state polytechnic. Samples were obtained with one hundred and eighty (180) students randomly selected. The four factors that were examined and statistically analyses were: parental socio-economic background, parental educational background, parental educational qualification and students’ health statuses. Diverse statistical tests were performed on the various data collected to establish statistical significance of the effects on students’ academic performance. Parental socio-economic statuses and parental educational background did not have significance effect on the academic performance of the students. However, the parental educational qualification and health statuses of the students were identified tom have statistical significant effect o the academic performance of the students. The two variables that indicated significant influence do reflect nature of the student’ home environment and played notable role in the academic achievement of the respondents. Government could intervene to raise level of academic achievement among students in rural area.
BACKGROUND TO STUDY
Home environment is influenced by the factors such as parent’s education, occupation, income, and facilities provided to their children. All these factors together can be defined by a single term the “socio-economic status” (SES). Thus
one can say the SES effects the learning achievement of students. SES perceived by different factors in different countries. It is based on social, cultural and economic situation of the country.
Socio-economic status is a term comprises of two variables: the social status
and economic status. Social status is acquired by social position and economic status is associated with the money or economy a person has. The SES was measured with same indicators by different sociologists, educationists and psychologists. According to Parson, Stephanie and Deborah (2001), “Socio-economic Status (SES) is the term used to distinguish between people’s relative position in the society in terms of family income, political power, educational background and occupational prestige”. After ten years the SES was defined by Saifi and Mehmood (2011) as “SES is a combined measure of an individual or family’s economic and social position relative to others based on income, education and occupation”. These are almost the same indicators.
Many research studies indicated that SES affects the student’s achievement.
Mirza (2001) conducted a research study to find out the relationship of SES and
student’s achievement and found that SES has fairly significant affect on their achievement. Khan and Shah (2002) also conducted a research study on factors
associated with learning achievement of grade V students in public schools. The
findings of the research were that father’s education significantly affects the students increase in percentage score specially the urban student’s achievement. It was further found that mother’s education up to SSC level showed significant increase in urban girls students achievement and decrease from HSC to Master’s level education. The findings regarding father’s occupation were the father’s technical education has greater impact on student’s achievement.
Eamon (2005) research showed that low SES prevents access to resources and
leads to additional stress and conflicts at home that affects student’s academic
achievements. Barry (2006) supported the findings of Eamon’s study and reported
that SES had greater impact on student’s test scores.
Hijazi and Naqvi (2006) found that mother education has significant positive
relation and mother’s age has significantly negative relationship with student’s
achievement. The study further indicated that income showed significant negative
relationship with student’s achievement.
Yucel’s (2007) observed slightly different results. The aim of the study was to
analyze the factors effecting student’s achievement in chemistry. The findings
indicated that the number of siblings affect the student’s achievement. The study
showed the significant positive relationship when the number of siblings are two and significant negative relationship when number of siblings increases up to 4 or 5.
The Saifi and Mehmood (2011) study the effects of SES on student’s achievement. They used income, parent’s education and occupation, material possessed at home, transport and servants as the indicators of SES and data were analyzed through percentages. The findings indicated that parent’s education and occupation and facilities at home affect the student’s achievement.
The responsibility of training a child always lies in the hand of the parents. This is congruent with the common assertion sociologist that education can be an instrument of cultural change which is being taught from home is relevant in this discuss. It is not out of place to imagine that parental socio–economic background can have possible effects on the academic achievement of children in school. Whatsoever affect the development environment of children would possibly affect their education or disposition to it. Parental status is one of such variables. When a woman’s nutritional status improves, so too does the nutrition of her young children A (Lisa et al., 2003). Rothestein has asserted as follows:
“Parents of different occupation classes often have different styles of child rearing, different ways of disciplining their children and different ways of reacting to their children. These differences do not express themselves consistently as expected in the case of every family; rather they influence the average tendencies of families for different occupational classes.” (Rothestein, 2004).
In line with the above assertion, Hill et al. (2004) had also argued that socio–economic status of parents do not only affect the academic performance, but also makes it possible for children from low background to compete well their counterparts from high socio – economic background under the same academic environment. Moreover, Smith, Fagan and Ulvund (2002) had asserted that significant predicator of intellectual performance at age of 8 years included parental socio economic status (SES). In the same vein, other researchers had posited that parental SES could affect school children as to bring about flexibility to adjustment to the different school schedules (Guerin et al., 2001). In a previous local finding in Nigeria, Oni (2007) and Omoegun (2007) had averred that there is significant difference between the rates of deviant behaviour among students from high and low socio–economic statuses.
The health status of the children which could also be traceable to parental socio – economic background can be another factor that can affect the academic performance of the students. Adewale (2002) had reported that in a rural community where nutritional status is relatively low and health problems are prevalent, children academic performance is greatly hindered. This assertion is again hinged on nature of parental socio–economic background. Moreover, Eze (1996) had opined that when a child get proper nutrition, health care, stimulation during pre– school years, the ability to interact with take optimal advantage of the full complement of resources offered by any formal learning environment is enhanced.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The foregoing discussion had established that socio – economic status and host of other factors relating to home environment of students, such as educational background of parents, health status of students, parental occupation and family size could have effects on children academic achievement.
It is against this background that this work is being undertaken to empirically investigate the possible effect of these factors on ND II secretarial administrative students’ academic achievement in selected Polytechnic in the state.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This study is aimed at investigating the possibility of parental socio–economic background playing a significant role on students’ academic performance taking ND II secretarial administrative students in Akwa Ibom state polytechnic as a case study. Specifically, this study is being undertaken with the following objectives:
1. To find out the effect of parental socio – economic status on students’ academic performance of ND II secretarial administrative students
2. To determine the effect of educational status of the parent on academic performance of ND II secretarial administrative students
3. To determine the impact of educational qualification on students’ academic performance of ND II secretarial administrative students
4. To find out if there is any link between statuses of students and the academic performance of ND II secretarial administrative students.
The research questions to guide this study are thus:
a. What is the effect of parental socio – economic status on students’ academic performance of ND II secretarial administrative students?
b. What is the effect of educational status of the parent on academic performance of ND II secretarial administrative students?
c. What is the impact of educational qualification on students’ academic performance of ND II secretarial administrative students?
d. Is there is any link between statuses of students and the academic performance of ND II secretarial administrative students?
1. Parental socio – economic status does not have significant effect on the academic achievement of ND II secretarial administrative students.
2. Parental educational background has no significant effect on students’ academic achievements of ND II secretarial administrative students
3. Parental qualification has no significant effect on the academic achievement of ND II secretarial administrative students
4. Health status of students has no significant on the academic achievement of ND II secretarial administrative students.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS STUDY
It is envisaged that the findings of this study may expose some factors that might be responsible for poor performance of of ND II secretarial administrative students in school. The identified areas where government at different levels could come in will be brought into focus in other to bridge the gap of educational attainment of students of low and high income earners in the society. The importance of achieving the objectives of education programmed among the general populace cannot be over emphasized. A researcher, Laosa, had posted as follows:
“The educational achievement gap has deep root; it is evident very early in child’s lives; even before they enter schools. Socio–economic differences – such as health and nutrition status, home environments that provide access to academically related experiences, mobility rates, and financial assets can certainly influence academic achievements” (Laosa, 2005:5)
SCOPE OF THIS STUDY
The study looks at the socio-economic factors affecting academic performance of ND II secretarial administrative students in akwa poly as a case.
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