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ABSTRACT

UTI is a common bacterial infection that affects components of the urinary system. This infection affects all ages

and both sexes. Despite these, women are usually more susceptible to this infection and has a higher prevalence

compared to the men. Some of the risk factors responsible for this high prevalence is due to menopause, poor

personal hygiene, pregnancy and the close anatomical relationship of the female urethra and the anus. Among the

uropathogens involved in this infection, entrobacteriaceae especially the E.coli is usually the most prevalent and

accounts for 80-85% of the total isolate. Most often this infection is usually neglected but it is capable of claiming

life under severe circumstances. This article therefore reviews the prevalence and predisposing factors responsible

for urinary tract infection in adults. UTI being a major problem faced by the populace and the cause of most health

care expenditure, it is therefore important to know the predisposing factors responsible for this infection as this will

serve as a guide to individuals, care givers and health planners to guide and managed the expected interventions as

the management involves drug therapy and patients education.

Keywords: Urinary tract infection (UTI), uropathogens, bacterial infection, urethra, predisposing factor

CHAPTER 1

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections affecting the populace both young and old. This infection usually affect one or more components of the urinary system and is particularly common among the female population with an incidence of about one percent of school aged girls and four percent of women through child bearing age (Combs, 3015).

Reports from other studies reveals that most uropathogen causing UTIs colonize the colon, the perianal region, and in females the periurethral region forming a biofilm that usually resists the body's immune response. UTIs can also result from fecal pathogens that ascend the opening of the urethra, stick to the walls of the urethra, multiplying and then move up the urethra to the bladder where they cause annoying symptoms during urination (Philips, 2016).

Although, most UTIs are self-limiting, improving without treatment even when culture is positive, other poses dangerous health risk which if left untreated may tend to spread up through the ureters, into the kidneys resulting in pyelonephritis. It has been estimated globally that UTIs result in as many as 8.3 million visits to

outpatient clinics, 1 million visits to emergency departments, and 100,000 hospitalizations annually (UNICEF, 2014). Although this infection affects both genders, women are the most vulnerable may be due to their anatomy and reproductive physiology. The prevalence also increases with advancing age, catheterization, sexual activity, menopause and prostate problems. The predominant organisms responsible for UTI are mostly the Enterobacteriaceae especially E. coli which are the cause of 80–85% of urinary tract infections. Laboratory investigations are required for the diagnosis and confirmation of UTI while treatment is based on information obtained from the antimicrobial susceptibility testing. This review therefore outlines the prevalence and predisposing factors responsible for urinary tract infections in adults.


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