THE EFFECT OF RADIATION ON PRE- NATAL BABIES (A CASE STUDY AT SHEHU MUHAMMAD KANGIWA MEDICAL CENTRE (SMKMC) KADUNA POLYTECHNIC, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA.

THE EFFECT OF RADIATION ON PRE- NATAL BABIES (A CASE STUDY AT SHEHU MUHAMMAD KANGIWA MEDICAL CENTRE (SMKMC) KADUNA POLYTECHNIC, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA.

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ABSTRACT

A research was conducted to know the Effect of Radiation on Pre natal babies, A case study of Shehu Muhammad Kangiwa Medical Centre, Kaduna (SMKMC), 20 Questionnaire  were shared to the woman that undergo x-ray examination while they are pregnant. Some said “Radiation Effect affect their embryo because they don’t tell the technicians that they are pregnant. Fetal sensitivity to radiations induced health effect is related to gestation age, the developing embryo and fetus are extremely sensitive to ionizing radiation. The main effects of radiation on the human embryo and fetus are: growth retardation, pre natal or neonatal death, congenital malformations and mental retardation. The incidence of these radiation effects at different stages of gestation, the relations with absorbed doses and threshold doses are discussed. Epidemiological data that reveal high susceptibility to carcinogenic effects of radiation during in utero life are presented.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Generally, the exposure of a fetus to radiation is referred to as prenatal radiation exposure. The possibility of server health effects depends on the gestational age of the fetus at the time of exposure and the amount of radiation it is exposed to unborn babies are less sensitive during some stages of pregnancy than other. The time during which a fetus develops inside the mother’s womb is vital for healthy growth. Radiation exposure before a baby’s birth can increases the livelihood of disease such as cancers later it’s barely begun. Since unborn babies are especially sensitive to radiation. However, fetuses are particularly sensitive to radiation during their early development, between weeks 2 and 18 of pregnancy. The health consequences can be severe, even at radiation does too low to make the mother sick, growth, deformities, abnormal brain function, or cancer that may develop sometime later in life.

The prenatal radiation exposure can occur when the mother is abdomen is exposed to radiation from outside her body, Also, A pregnant woman who accidentally, swallows or breathes in radiation materials may absorb that substance into her blood stream. Form the mother’s blood, radioactive materials may pass through the umbilical cord to the baby or concentrate  in areas of the mother’s body near the womb (such as the uniary bladder) and expose the fetus to radiation.

Unborn babies are especially sensitive to the cancer-causing effects of radiation. However, the increased risk depend on the amount of radiation to which the baby was exposed. For examples, if the radiation dose to the unborn baby was roughly equivalent to 500 chest X-rays at one time, the increases in life time cancers risk would be less than 2% (above the normal life-time cancer risk of 40 to 50%).

During the preimplantation period (blastogenisis) exposure to a radiation dose grater than O.Gy (10rod) is associated with a risk of failure to implant, representing an “all or none” phenomenon of early embryonic development. If the embryo survive, substantial regardless of the radiation dose.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Radiation on prenatal babies may affect the unborn baby because the human embryo and fetus are particularly sensitive to radiation, and the health consequence of exposure can be less severe abnormalities in human embryo exposed before 2-3 weeks of gestation was observed, although an increase abortion was formed. Severe abnormalities observation.Between 4 and 11 weeks of gestation. Abnormalities involving eyes, skeleton, genital organs and stunted growth, Micro-cephaly and mental retardation was observed between 11 and 16 weeks of gestation, weeks 16-20 showed mild stunted growth, microcephaly and mental retardation, irradiation after 30 weeks caused functional disabilities. Also in other to protect an unborn babies from the effect of radiation you have to tell any health care provider you see, that you’ve pregnant before you get an X-ray or other tests that uses radiation, like computed tomography (CTSC). If you’ve pregnant and need an x-ray or CT scan your physician may wait or change another treatment for you.If you work with radiation as your job.Talk  to your superior. Tell him that you’re pregnant. To change another place for you to avoid radiation on your fetus.

1.3     AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

          Aim

i.        The aim of this study is to know the effect of radiation to the unborn babies

Objective

i.        To identify at which stage of development the prenatal babies can be affected.

ii.       To known the risks that the unborn babies faces when exposed to radiation.

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

i.        Is there any effect of radiation on prenatal babies?

ii.       At which stage of development the unborn can be affected

iii.      Is there any effects of exposure in the utero?

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This research work is for the effect of the radiation on prenatal babies because fetal sensitivity to radiation dose to the fetus, the dose needs to be estimated before potential health effects can be assessed. Estimating the radiation dose to the fetus requires consideration of all source external and internal to the mother’s body. For this document, the fetal radiation dose from source external to the mother’s body can be estimated by determining the dose to the mother’s abdomen. Estimating the dose from sources internal to the mother’s body is more complex. The risks of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation very based on the stage of development. An embryo is most susceptible to the effects of radiation during organogenesis (two to seven weeks after conception) and in the early fetal period (eight to 15 weeks after conception) the effects of exposure can be teratogenic, carcinogenic, or mutagenic and are directly related to the level of radiation exposure.

1.6     SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study the effect of radiation on prenatal babies was limited only in Shehu Muhammad Kangiwa Medical Centre Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna State.

1.7     OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERM

i.        Teratogenic: Causing malformation or defects to an embryo or fetus.

ii.       Carcinogenic: Is an any substance that causes cancer is known as carcinogenic.

iii.      Mutagenic: Is the ability to cause a permanent change in an organism genes.

iv.      Radiation: Is the emission or transmission of radiant energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

v.       Exposure: Is the fact of experiencing  something or being affected by it because of being in a particular situation or place. You should always limit your exposure to the sun. Even a brief exposure to radiation is very dangerous.

vi.      Pre-natal:Before birth: during or relating to pregnancy.

vii.     Risk: is the possibility of something bad happening.

viii.    Effect: is a change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.

ix.      Embryo: is an unborn or unhitched offspring in the process of development, in particular a human offspring during the period from approximately the second to the eighth week after fertilization (after which it is usually termed a fetus.

x.       Fetus: is an unborn or unhitched vertebrate especiallyafter attaining the basic structural plan of its kind specifically, a developing in conception to birth.

xi.      Organogenesis: is the phase of embryonic development that starts at the end of gastrulating and continues until birth.

xii.     Sensitivity: Is the proportion of truly diseased persons in the screened population who are identified as diseased by the screening test.

xiii.    Dose: Is a measured quantity of a medicine, nutrient, or pathogen which is delivered as a unit.

xiv.    Cancer: is a disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body.

xv.     Stuntedgrowth: also know as stunting and nutritional stunting, is a reduced growth rate in human development.

xvi.    Deformities: is a part of someone’s body which is not the normal shape because of injury or illness, or because they were born this way.

xvii.   Gestation: is the period of development during the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside vivaprous animals.

xviii.  Abnormal brain function:When brain is damaged, it can affect many different things, including your memory, your sensation, or even your personality.

xix.    Pregnancy: Also know as gestation is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

xx.     Micro cephaly: Is a condition in which a baby’s head is significantlysmaller than expected, often, due to abnormal brain development.

xxi.    Mental Retardation: Is a developmental disability that first appears in children under the age of 18.

xxii.   Functional disability: Is a deficit in physical cognitive, or mental/emotional functioning that interfered with personal and social daily living and is the direct result of a health condition.

xxiii.  Abortion: Is the  ending of pregnancy due to removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.

xxiv.  Rem: Is a unit of effective absorbed dose of ionizing radiation in human tissue, loosely equivalent to one nitrogen of x-ray

xxv.   Genital:Is a small bump on the genitals caused by a common sexually transmitted infection.

xxvi.  Uterus: is a hollow muscular organ located in the female pelvis between the bladder and rectum. 


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