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1.1 Background of the Study
Indian hemp is a plant that has been cultivated since ancient times for its fiber, oil, and narcotic effect. It has been a part of Indian medicine for centuries, and as such, has been included in the ‘’Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India’’ as an indigenous, medicinal herb. It bears different name among different cultures. It is known as weed, pot marijuana, ganja, Mary-Jane, grass, shrunk, Lala, Igbo among others. Its origin can be traced to china in the 6000BC, it seeds were used for food and medicine among others (Ologbese, 2009)
The use of plant for medicinal purpose is dated back to antiquity (Oluma, 2004) since then people cultivated a variety of drugs producing plants for religious, medicinal and social purpose ignorant of the addictive properties it contained. Physicians used them to treat a wide variety of human illness. So great was their popularity that they found their way into almost a patent medicines used for pain relief and were even incorporated in soothing syrups for babies (Adler et al. 2007) Hence, Indian hemp consumption today become a common and a threatening universal social phenomenon.
In the olden days the substance was smoke secretly mainly by boys. Nowadays, it is smoked openly by both genders, be it rich or poor; young or old. Though, Indian hemp smoking is disastrous to individuals and the entire society unfortunately, it has gone out of hand. The high rates of it consumption among student in West Africa is getting out of hand. The smoking of the hemps resulted to some of the violence, hugger, assault, insanity, and murder cases that characterized the present conditions of our society. It is noted that smoking hemp transforms the consumer into a brutal beast with the ability to commit crime without feeling remorse or guilty (West African dissertations, 2013).
Indian hemp is the most commonly used illegal drug in the world. A survey conducted in 2007 found that 14.4 million individuals in the USA alone had smoked marijuana at least once during the previous month. The problem associated with drugs today is further complicated by the wide diversity of substances abused, their varying effect on the mind and body, and the kind of dependencies users develop (Adler et al 2007). The abuse of substances however leads to untold hardship to individuals and the entire society. Man as a social being has a right to select, accept, reject and also do whatever he likes, whether good or wrong, depending on the norms and values of his society. It is within the very spheres of self-determination that human being engaged in actions that often turn out to be harmful to themselves and the society at large.
Researcher gathered that factors such as frustration, anxiety, stress unemployment and improper socialization caused individual to engage in deviant act such as the consumption of oral intoxicant of various types (Wrights, 2003) similarity, it has been added that many youth are involved in smoking Indian hemp due to frustration, parent negligence in taking adequate care and good future plans for the children and pathological peer influences among others. (http;//www.smokershealthtips.blogspot.com; Joel, 2009 and Ologbese, 2008).
Considering the incidence of Indian hemp smoking in our society, it can be adduced that no society is completely isolated from negative consequences of the illicit –drugs. Many analysts are of the opinion that apart from the genocide of the Second World War, no other phenomenon has had more debilitating consequences on mankind like the pandemic drug scourge. This view is anchored on the fact that even the much dreaded HIV/AIDS which has yet defied any known cure has narcotic drug as one of its principal causes. Besides that drugs are known to induce social vices, civil upheavals, and other forms of criminalities such as stealing. These challenges brought about by Indian hemp smoking to the society has actually crossed the intellectual interest in the researcher to make further investigation on the health effect of Indian hemp smoking among undergraduate student of Kaduna state university main campus Kaduna state.
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
It is true that Indian hemp smoking has been adopted in Kaduna state university by student of different levels, sex, religious and faculties. The rate at which student consume it affect their academic performances negatively; it causes damages in different part of the body such as mouth, teeth, skin fingernails and hair. Indian hemp product contain element and compound such as arsenic , carbon monoxide, nicotine and formaldehyde which causes wrinkles ,discoloration of skin complexion and yellowing of fingernails when they enter the blood stream. Damages caused internally and externally by smoking lead to many changes in persons appearances. Indian hemp smoking make student look older than they actually are. Beside the offensive body odour, colour of the teeth and lips has great negative social health impact on Indian hemp smokers. Indian hemp smokers are prone to many forms of disease such a emphysema, chronic bronchitis, cancer of the lungs, bladder pancreatitis, kidney and esophageal. Indian hemp smoking can be described as a physical and psychological addiction withdrawal symptoms and nicotine include anxiety, sleep disturbances, depression in appetite, irritating, cognitive and attention deficits. Indian hemp smoking transform the person brutal beast, with ability to crime without been remorse or guilty. The most serious evils the hemp does can be seen from both it short term and long term effects which render the victims health deficient and so unproductive virtually in human Endeavour.
However it has been observed that Indian hemp smoking has a very strong influence on student social behavior and academic achievement. Students’ lifestyles remain an important determinant to their behavior. Indian hemp smoking could influences social behavior on academic achievement of student in school, negative social behavior like cultism, truancy, drug/alcohol, gangsters’, and examination mal practices have been on the increase.
1.3 Research Questions
In view of the problems observed above, the researchers mind question;
1. Does undergraduate student Kaduna state university smoke Indian hemp?
2. What are the physical indices for identifying persons who smoke Indian hemp?
3. How do student of Kaduna state university get into smoking of Indian hemp?
4. Are student of Kaduna state university aware of the effects of Indian hemp smoking?
1.4 The Objectives of the Study
The general objective of the study is to attempt a sociological analysis of drug use. To achieve this, the following specific objectives have been adopted.
1. To verify Indian hemp smoking among undergraduate student of Kaduna state university.
2. To analyzed physical indicators of drug abuse in Indian hemp smokers.
3. To identify the causes of Indian hemp smoking among student of Kaduna state university main campus.
4. To find out whether student are aware of the effects of Indian hemp smoking among student of Kaduna state university main campus.
5. What do u think are the Solutions to the problem of Indian hemp smoking among the student of Kaduna state university Kaduna.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study will contribute to the existing knowledge on Indian hemp smoking. It will also highlight the determinant and effect of Indian hemp smoking especially among student of Kaduna state university main campus. Firstly, this study will provide knowledge that will sharpen the mind of student who are engage in Indian hemp smoking and make them understand the determinant, and effect of Indian hemp smoking on academic performance.
Secondly, to educate student, individuals and groups so that they will develop attitudes and values that are ideal in conformity with the ethical and moral standard in any society they found themselves.
Finally, the result obtained and the recommendations could be used as handbook, references material for student, governmental organizations, community leaders, social workers and also the Indian hemp smokers.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This study will examine issues of Indian hemp smoking among student in Kaduna state university main campus, and the area of interest will be on the determinant of Indian hemp smoking among student on campus. The study will adopt quantitative method of data collection and analysis.
1.7 DEFNITIONS OF KEY TERMS
This sub-section seeks to provide meaning to some of the frequent used and high-sounding concepts as seen below:
Indian hemp: it is a plant cultivated for its fibre, oil, and narcotic effect.
Marijuana: Marijuana is a word used to describe the dried flowers, seed and leaves of Indian hemp plant.
Cannabis: it means any of different drugs that came from Indian hemp, including marijuana and hashish.
Drug abuse or substance abuse: this is a patterned use of substance (drug)in which the user consumes the substances in amount or with method neither approved nor supervised by medical professionals.
Hashish: is a related form of drug that comes from Indian hemp, including marijuana and hashish.
Illicit- drugs: These are drugs not allowed by the law.
Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia: it is an indigenous Indian medicine that use hemp for alleviation of migraine headaches and stomach Spanpian.
Cannabis sativa: scientific name of Indian hemp.
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