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1.1 Background to the Study
The term drug is defined as any substance that when absorbed into a living organism may modify one or more of its physiological functions. The term is generally used in reference to a substance taken for both therapeutic purpose and abused substances (Kwamanga, Odhiambo &Amukoye, 2003). Globally and even regionally, drug and substance abuse is an ever expanding problem and is recognized as a threat with serious effects on people’s health, security, social-economic and cultural welfare. In Nigeria, students have consistently shown that there is considerable prevalence of drug and substance use; with varying preference rates found for both overall and specific drug abuse (Abdulkarim, 2005). Some of these commonly abused substances include tobacco, Miraa (khat), bhang, alcohol, cocaine, mandrax and heroine (NACADA, 2006).
A report by United Nation Drug Control Programme (UNDCP, 1998) shows that 60% of student’s abuse drugs. A survey by National Council Against Drug Abuse (NACADA, 2006) shows that substance abuse is widespread. It affects the youth mostly although it cuts across all social groups. Many young people especially the unemployed have resulted to using drugs like heroin and cocaine which are injectables. This has been a major contributor to the spread of HIV/AIDS due to the fact that they share syringes. Other drugs like alcohol can lead to risky sexual behavior as they affect judgment and decision making. A drunkard is unable to assert himself or herself especially when it comes to saying no to unprotected sex thus resulting to exposures to sexually transmitted infections.
According to WHO (2005), drug abuse has been a part of human history for a long time. The body maintained that what is different today is increased availability of a wide variety of substances and the declining age at which experimentation with these substances take place. Leary (2010) concurring with WHO’ adds that the concern now is the incidence, extent, prevalence, potency and diversity of designer drugs, the health effects of long term use/abuse and government legislation. In view of Leary’s assertion, the extent of drug abuse among secondary school students was the major concern of the present study.
Drug abuse has a negative impact on the education of secondary school students. The overall health of the user is affected negatively and behaviours associated with drug abuse predispose the abuser to crime and contagious diseases including HIV/AIDS (CDC, 2000). Drug abuse has thus become a national concern in Nigeria, given its impacts on education and future leadership, innovations and human resources. Secondary school students are particularly at risk given that they are in their formative years of education, career development, social skills and identity formation. Reports from education officials in Bayelsa State suggest that students are using alcohol and nicotine, in particular, at a rate that is causing concern. Despite National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and other organization-based interventions, drug abuse is on the rise with over 40% of students abusing various types of drugs. Drug abuse appears to be a well-entrenched behaviour among secondary school students. In shopping centres and other public spaces, students who have dropped out of school because of drug abuse, can be found loitering and participating in other forms of criminal activity. Given the availability, consequences and increasing use of drugs in Nigeria, it is important to establish students’ perception of drugs and substance abuse and how these perceptions influence their behaviour when it comes to drugs and drug users. It is against this background that the current study was undertaken. This study seeks to establish student perceptions of the drug problem and to critically analyze strategies used to address the problem.
Guidance and counselling is a term usually used together which focus on assisting individuals attain self-understanding and direction, although attempts have been made by various authors to define the term separately. While Ezeji (2001), defines guidance as the help given by a person to another in making choices, adjustment and in solving problems, Denga (2001), sees guidance as a cluster of formalised educational services designed by the school to assist students to achieve self-knowledge or self-understanding which is necessary for them to attain full self-development and self- realization of their potential. On the other hand, Okeke (2003), defines counselling as a helping relationship involving the counsellor and the client, in which the counsellor uses his professional knowledge and skills to assist the client attain proper development and maturity, improved functioning and ability to cope with life’s problems. Counselling is also defined according to Eze (2012), as an inter-personal relationship between a professionally trained individual (counsellor) and a troubled individual (counsellee) or individuals (counsellees) whereby the former utilises his professional skills to help the latter to be able to solve his educational, vocational and person social problems.
Based on various empirical literature presented above, the researcher sees guidance and counselling as a process of utilising professional skills by a person (counsellor) to assist another (client) in a person to person relationship to achieve the resolution of general life problems, in order to attain proper development and functioning. General life problems here, refers to all aspects of the individual’s life which include; personal, social, educational and vocational among others, as no single individual is said to be free from trouble or problem. Guidance and counselling is therefore designed to help individuals/students in their different problems and concerns, so that they grow up well adjusted individuals capable not only of living productive lives, but are also prepared to contribute their quota to the development of their society. Gibson, 2008 states that Guidance and counselling services prepare students to assume increasing responsibility for their decisions and grow in their ability to understand and accept the results of their choices.
1.2 Statement of Problem
It is evident that substance use and abuse is still a problem in Nigerian secondary schools despite the various measures taken to curb it. Drug abuse menace has strangled youthful population both secondary school students and non-students reducing them to dummies, zombies and drooling figures as well as wasting their lives at the age which they are most needed in society (Ngesu, et al 2008). Although the youth have been educated on the dangers of the drug abuse, most of the secondary school students have little or no knowledge of how dangerous the vice is (Ngesu et al 2008).
Drug and substance abuse lead to many problems in schools especially strikes which are normally experienced in schools although many people attribute the strikes to school mocks especially in the second term of the academic calendar. Some of the known incidents include those at Nyeri High School where prefects were burnt in the dormitory, Kyanguli secondary where many boys were killed and several cult clashes in secondary schools in Benin city, Nigeria. It is possible that students who abuse drugs while in school play a big role in influencing acts like strikes as they are under the influence of drugs.
It has been noted that students face a number of drug abuse related problems during adolescence (Amakos, 2011). Since secondary school students are in the adolescent stage, the need for effective guidance and counselling becomes compelling. Thus there is need to establish the effectiveness of services from schools counsellors and students.
In addition, the view of the school as a context where students experience a number of problems (Line in Daries 2009) as well as the increased number of problems students face in modern society have prompted the researcher to investigate the effectiveness of counselling program in addressing substance abuse in Ibusa, Oshimili North local government area, Delta state.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
• To find out the effect of counseling programs in addressing substance abuse of the experimental group exposed to the treatment in Ibusa, Oshimili North LGA, Delta State
• To find out the effect of counseling programs in addressing substance abuse of male and female experimental group exposed to the treatment in Ibusa, Oshimili North LGA, Delta State
• To find out the effect of counseling programs in addressing substance abuse of urban and rural experimental group exposed to the treatment in Ibusa, Oshimili North LGA, Delta State
1.4 Research Questions
• What is the effect of counseling programs in addressing substance abuse of the experimental group exposed to the treatment in Ibusa, Oshimili North LGA, Delta State?
• What is the effect of counseling programs in addressing substance abuse of male and female experimental group exposed to the treatment in Ibusa, Oshimili North LGA, Delta State?
• What is the effect of counseling programs in addressing substance abuse of urban and rural experimental group exposed to the treatment in Ibusa, Oshimili North LGA, Delta State?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
H01: There is no significant effect of counseling programs in addressing substance abuse of the experimental group exposed to the treatment.
H02: There is no significant effect of counseling programs in addressing substance abuse of male and female experimental group exposed to the treatment.
H03: There is no significant effect of counseling programs in addressing substance abuse of urban and rural experimental group exposed to the treatment
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study sought to generate useful data on the causes and impact of drugs abuse on education in Nigeria. Therefore, the findings of this study may be useful in several, ways: The Ministry of Education (MOE) may use the study findings to find out ways of preventing drug and substance abuse through public enlightened campaigns in schools, promotion of awareness on the dangers of drugs and how they affect an individual, the family and the society at large.
It is envisaged that the study will benefit school counsellors, students, researchers, policy makers and administrators by making relevant information available about guidance and counselling programmes on substance abuse of drug addicts. It will help school counsellors with information and criteria with which to evaluate their guidance and counselling services. It will help parents to know the effect of guidance and programmes in shaping the future of their children. It will also provide the information needed by students in order to weigh the value of the guidance and counselling services which the school offer them.
The government may put in modalities of strengthening the guidance and counseling department in schools through taking the teachers for service teacher training courses. The findings may also be used to advocate that campaigns against substance use should be incorporated in schools with special focus on the adverse consequences of the substance use. Ultimately, the society will benefit from the findings of this study in creating a drug free society for social, economic and political development in line with sustainable development goals. The school principals may assist the students in identifying the sources of drugs so that they can take remedial measures. The guidance and counselling departments might be strengthened through appointment of trained and qualified counsellors to head the departments.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The research limits the topical coverage of the study to the assessment of effectiveness of counseling programs on addressing substance abuse among secondary school students within Ibusa, Oshimili North LGA, Delta State.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Drug abuse: Refers to excessive illegal drug use and/ or legal drug use without a doctor’s prescription
Substance abuse: Refers to harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances including alcohol and other illicit drugs to stimulate behaviour.
Adolescence: Refers to period between childhood and adulthood and characterized by physical and emotional changes.
Guidance: Advice about what one should do or how one should behave. In this study, it is a process of assisting individuals to help themselves through their own effort, to discover and develop their own potentials for personal fulfillment and social usefulness.
Counselling: Advice which is given to someone experiencing problems. In this study counselling means helping students to help themselves.
Quality of counselling personnel; The ability for the counsellor to carry out his duty’s effectiveness using all recommended tools.
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