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1.1 Background to the study
Academic success occupies a very important place in education as well as in the learning process. It is considered as a key criterion to judge one’s total potentialities and capacities which are frequently measured by the examination results (Ayodele ,2018 and Yenagi, 2012). It is used to pass judgment on the quality of education offered by academic institutions. In fact, it is still the most topical debate in higher learning institutions that caused great concern to educators and researchers due to the alarming examination performance of students (Nuthana and Yenagi, 2012).
Success as the name implies is wished for by everybody but it is not easily come by on a mere platter of gold; one must work for it through hard work and diligence achieved through a good study habit (Boehler, 2011). The social and economic development of a country is directly linked with student academic success; the desire of success is derived from individual’s concept of himself and in term of the meaning of various incentives as they spell success and failure in the eye of others (Boehler, 2011).
Study habit has been seen as the pattern of behavior adopted by students in the pursuit of their studies that serves as the vehicle of learning. It is the degree to which the student engages in regular acts of studying that are characterized by appropriate studying routines (e.g. reviews of material, frequency of studying sessions, etc.) occurring in an environment that is conducive to studying (Crede and Kuncel, 2013). In short, study habits of students are determined through their time management ability, work methods, attitudes toward teachers, mental stability, drug use and acceptance of education.
A review of literature highlighted the importance of students study habits in their academic success. According to Rana and Kausar (2011), many students fail not because they lack ability but because they do not have adequate study skills. Students who have difficulty in institutions frequently do not have adequate study habits that affect their academic success. A central problem noted was that many of these students had not learned how to take effective notes and manage time for studying (Mutsotso and Abenga, 2010). Moreover, a study by Nagaraju (2014) found that students usually do not devote sufficient time to their studies and seldom have proper study habits.
Efficient study habits are associated with a favorable attitude toward learning in general. Otto (2018) beliefs in the value of intellectual pursuits and in the importance of education are positively related to academic success. There are several predictors of study habits, but this study will focus on drug abuse and mental stability
Drug abuse among undergraduate students in Nigerian higher institutions of learning has become an embarrassing occurrence to parents, schools, government authorities, and the general public (Obiamaka, 2014). The constant abuse of drugs among this group of students can cause mental instability (Obiamaka, 2014). One may hope that this hateful practice and its associated problems would not lead to the breeding of mentally unstable and deranged generation of youths. This fear is not speculative because of what happens to be the frequent and rampant drug crises in many Nigerian educational institutions. Several studies has also revealed that drug abuse is indicated as a causative factor of poor study habit among the undergraduates (Hollister and McGrath, 2016).
Substance or drug abuse and mental instability issues encompasses medical, social cultural and other variables and is not a just medical or moral issue. According to Hollister and McGrath (2016), people agree to the use of some substances or drugs under certain circumstances as benign and even beneficial practice through connection to social and individual situations. The use of drugs like Benylin with codeine, Tutolin with codeine, for medical purposes like whooping cough is not a drug abuse but becomes abuse only when it is geared towards producing some desired behaviours, physical dependency, addiction and/or constitute a nuisance to the society (Obiamaka, 2014). According to Abdullahi (2013), the term drugs is a abroad name that is not restricted to oral therapy (i.e. injection, capsules or tablets) but includes marijuana, alcohol as well as traditional alcoholic drinks like Ogogoro, Burukutu, Fito & Bammi.
Nigerians make use of different drugs just in the same way as this is done in many other societies. The population in Nigeria avails itself of drugs when the occasion warrants them just as other population in the world do. Drugs are abused in Nigeria simply because they are used without due authorization from formally qualified and registered persons who according to the laws of the land must approve their use.
This observation is borne out by several studies on drug abuse and illness behaviour among Nigerians (Obiamaka, 2014). According to Okonkwo (2015), the most common drug abuse in Nigeria are marijuana, amphetamines, mandrax, proplus, barbiturates and codeine that have negative effects to the undergraduates, youths, immediate society and Nigeria in general. Therefore, the essence of this research is to provide an analysis on drug abuse and mental instability as predictors of study habit of undergraduates of Babcock University.
Unfortunately, undergraduates that constitute the manpower and future of Nigerian society are mostly the victims (Abdullahi, 2013). Federal Ministry of Youths and Sport 2010 observed that, Nigerian youths aged 10-30 years are about 49% of the country's population. National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (2010) observed that, over 38% of Nigerian Youths abuse drugs. According to Abang (2016), in contemporary Nigeria, many categories of youths (male and female) are hooked on drug abuse which is the most commonly indicated factor in mental instability.
World Health Organization WHO (2012) defined mental stability to includes subjective well-being, perceived self-efficacy, autonomy, competence, inter-generational dependence, and self-actualization of one's intellectual and emotional potential, among others. Abang (2016) enumerated that the mental stability of an individual is encompassed in the realization of their abilities, coping with normal stresses of life, productive work and contribution to their community.
According to the WHO (2017), mental stability is the successful performance of mental function, resulting in productive activities, fulfilling relationships with other people, and providing the ability to adapt to change and cope with adversity. Hence, the researcher is of the opinion that mental stability of students is required to achieve any academic success.
Research evidences has demonstrated the many effects of drug abuse and mental stability on students study habits and subsequence academic success. Unlike other predictors of study habit, drug abuse and mental stability are the fundamental issues to be considered in study habits of students as they greatly determine the cognitive function of humans, hence, studying the undergraduates study habit predictive aptitude of drug abuse and mental stability is doing, hence, this research.
1.2 Statement of the problem
WHO (2013) stated that 22.1% of undergraduates abuse drugs. Today, more Nigerian undergraduates are becoming drug dependants, while Nigeria gradually transits from the status of a drug-consuming nation to that of a drug-producing one. It is no longer news that undergraduates now practice the use of substance like heroin and cocaine which will invariably influence mental stability. Others substances like Indian hemp, which is frequently produced in Nigeria and other substances like Methamphetamine and tablet with codeine capable of intoxicating are mostly found in schools (Staff, 2012).
Even with this social history, no study has been carried out on drug abuse and mental stability as predictors of study habit among undergraduates in Nigeria, hence the need for this study.
Illicit drug use is injurious to undergraduate students in their study habit. Today, there are estimated 500,000 undergraduate student drug users in Nigerian higher institution. No academic institution in Nigeria is immune and no student really is (Alabi, 2012). It is a general knowledge that defected cognitive function is certain in drug abusers. It is based on all these facts that the researcher perceives the need to examine drug abuse and mental stability as predictors of study habit of undergraduates of Babcock University
1. Objectives of the study
The objectives of this study are to find out:-
1. The effects of drug abuse on metal stability in the following areas ; Cognitive, Emotion, Perception of drug abusers.
2. The effects of drug abuse on social behavior in the following areas; Family related problems, Social isolation, Study habit of drug abusers.
3. To determine the relationship between the gender on drug abuse.
An attempt will be made in the study to answer the following research questions:
1. What are the effects of drug abuse on mental stability in the following areas: Cognitive Emotion, Perception of drug abusers?
2. What are the effects of drug abuse on social behaviour in the following areas: Family related problems, Social isolation, and Study habit of drug abusers?
3. Does gender have any relationship with drug abuse?
1.6 Significance of the study
The outcome of this research is significant to the following concerned groups
Students: it will educate and enlighten the students on the influence of drug abuse and mental stability on their study habit and academic success.
Parents: Findings from this study will form a guide for parents coordinating their children against drug abuse; ensure mental stability to guarantee good study habit and academic success.
School: This study will enlighten the school administrators on the extent to which drug use and abuse, mental stability can predict study habit and academic success of their students
Nation: The results from this work will enlighten the policy makers and the general public on the contribution of both drug abuse and mental stability to study habits of undergraduate. This is will therefore constitute a guide for the policy framework on the control of drug abuse and maintenance of mental stability among undergraduates.
Researchers: This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic
1.7 Scope of the study
This study is limited to undergraduate students at Babcock University. It will cover the prevalence of drug abuse and mental stability among the undergraduates of the institution. The first year students will not be included in the study because they are still very new in the system.
1.8 Definition of terms
Drug abuse: excessive and persistent self-administration of a drug without regard to the medically or culturally accepted patterns.
Study Habit: are the behaviors used when learning academic material and preparing for academic examinations.
Mental stability: a state of cognitive and psychological well-being in which every individual can work productively and fruitfully.
Undergraduates: a university student who has not yet taken a first degree.
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