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1.1 Background to the Study
major „„functionality principle‟‟ which is expected to influence greatly classroom pedagogy in social studies education is on the view that this subject area represents an interdisciplinary approach to the study of human beings in groups of interrelationship within both their social and physical environments. This functionality principle emphasis and underscores the vital role of Social Studies as an instrument for preparing and mobilizing young learners in school for the purpose of enabling them cultivate an awareness and understanding that would transform them into citizens with skills, competences, moral values and reasoned judgments to effectively live, interact and interrelate and contribute positively to economic, social, political and cultural development of their societies (Okam 2011). In this circumstance, a main goal of Social Studies Education is positive social attitudes and values is designed to generate and develop intelligent responsible and self-directing citizens who are expected to positively explore opportunities to develop their own potentialities and to contribute their maximum efforts to the improvement of group living within the societal framework of a nation (Okam, 2011).
Okam (2011) endorses that it was perhaps a recognition of the functionality principle of Social Studies Education for inculcating the right types of skill and virtues through unified and integrated interdisciplinary studies of man, that the
planners of the Nigeria National Policy of Education gave it a prominent place within the core subjects of the school curriculum in the 6, 3, 3, 4 System of Education established in 1977, as against the study of separate systematic disciplines of the social sciences. An important fundamental asset associated with the „„functionality principle‟‟ of social studies emanates from the curriculum development practices and processes built within the framework of the subject to inculcate social attitude and values.
Thus, modern approach to curriculum development in social studies and values derive from an understanding that the epistemology of the subject area is meant to incorporate inspiration from a variety of realms of learning, particularly the social sciences. A major „„functionality‟‟ embedded into this epistemology advocates a philosophy which will contribute significantly in bringing about innovation and development associated with curriculum integration. An implication of this philosophy of integration centres on the view that a single subject is not enough for an individual to adequately understand the interactions and interrelationships prevailing between man and his environment. This orientation endorses the idea that social science disciplines and other related subjects from where the Social Studies derives its raison d‟être should be utilized iteratively and interactively since they are all concerned with issues and problems dealing with the existence of man in his environmental settings (Okam 1998).
In other word, this curriculum development subscribes to the negation and dissolution of the divisions of subjects fields that constitute the varieties of bodies of organized knowledge. (Tabar, 1967; Bellack, Engle, Umar in Okam 2011).
At independence in 1960, one of the major things the country looked forward to achieve was the issue of good leadership and followership. A country that will excel in terms of political, economic and social development in Africa and compete favourably with developed nations. However, this dream was short-lived when in 1966 when the military took over till 1999 when the country witnessed yet another civilian government which has lasted up till this time.
However country Nigeria is bedevilled with problems, such as corruption, indiscipline, greed, tribalism, sectionalism, religious intolerance, and at present insurgency. These problems have adversely affected and still affecting the political, economic and social life of the people. They have generally frustrated the efforts of development in the country.
To overcome these problems, the nation has decided to train its citizen to acquire and develop values, attitudes and skills that will make them become citizens that can be referred to as good. To achieve this objective, the aspect of education that would be responsible for the training known as social studies was introduced into the school curriculum to inculcate social attitudes and values. It is against this background that the researcher wants to assess the extent to which social attitude and values can be used as tools to produce effective citizens responsible for producing and management of state apparatus.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The basic or fundamental ideas for the introduction of Social Studies in the Nigeria society is the inculcation and transmission of desired values, attitudes and
belief systems capable of enhancing the continuous growth and development of the Nigeria society. It is expected that after the child had been drilled in the philosophy of Social Studies, such a child was supposed to have been well groomed and baptized in the etiquette and values of Social studies education.
Unfortunately, students who are brought up in the values of Social Studies Education for citizenship still constitutes the gang of Nigerians who perpetrate evil activities as against the effective citizenship transmission embedded in positive social attitudes and values. These evil perpetrated includes, corruption, vandalism, arson, raping, theft, thuggery, electoral malpractices, examination malpractices among others. These actions are far from the realities of the desired citizenship education.
To this end, the Shehu Shagari Civilian Administration of 1979 to 1983 initiated „„Ethnical Revolution.‟‟ General Mohammed Buhari/General Idiagbon Military Administration of 1983 to 1985, instituted „War Against Indiscipline (WAI). Gen. Ibrahim Babangida Military Administration introduces Mass Mobilization for Self-reliance Social Justice and Economic Recovery (MAMSER), in 1987,
General Olusegun Obasanjo Civilian Regime also introduced „„National Orientation Agency (NOA) in 2001, and Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) in 2005. All have in common the goals of improving the knowledge and education of children and youths in the principles of citizenship and of increasing their responsibilities for playing a heightened role of affairs of government and public institution.
There have been superficial civic and political socialization programmes, but the erosion of the values and attitudes of young people, and the rising rate of juvenile crimes (armed robbery, hard drugs peddling, child trafficking, examination malpractice, political thuggery) and the general alienation of the people from the society‟s values system has led to the introduction of social studies as an aspect of education that can salvage the country from these anomalies. Hence the research of this nature becomes necessary in assessing attitudes social and values as tools for citizenship transmission, among secondary school students, especially in Niger state.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to assess social attitudes and values as tools for citizenship transmission among Junior Secondary School Students‟ in Niger State. The specific objectives of this study are to:
i. Find out the opinion of male and female students on Social Attitudes and Values as tools for citizenship transmission among Junior Secondary
School Students‟ in Niger State
ii. Determine the opinion of rural and urban students on Social Attitudes and Values as tools for citizenship transmission among Junior Secondary
School Students‟ in Niger State
iii. Determine the opinion of JSS II and JSSS III students on Social Attitudes and Values as tools for citizenship transmission among Junior Secondary
School Students‟ in Niger State
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were stated to be answered to find differences between the means of groups.
i. To what extent does the opinion of male and female students differ on Social Attitudes and Values as tools for citizenship transmission among
Junior Secondary School Students‟ in Niger State?
ii. What is the opinion of rural and urban students on Social Attitudes and Values as tools for citizenship transmission among Junior Secondary
School Students‟ in Niger State?
iii. What is the difference between the opinion of JSS II and JSSS III students on Social Attitudes and Values as tools for citizenship transmission among
Junior Secondary School Students‟ in Niger State?
The following null hypotheses were stated to be tested at p ≤ 0.05
Ho1 There is no significant difference between the mean opinion scores of male and female students on Social attitudes and values as tools for citizenship transmission among Junior Secondary School Students‟ in Niger State.
Ho2 There is no significant difference between the mean opinion scores of rural and urban students on Social attitudes and values as tools for citizenship transmission among Junior Secondary School Students‟ in Niger State.
Ho3 There is no significant difference between the mean opinion scores of JSS
II and JSSS III students on Social Attitudes and Values as tools for citizenship transmission among Junior Secondary School Students‟ in
1.6 Significance of the Study
The need for the development of desirable citizenship qualities through social studies education attitude and values cannot be over emphasized. Besides, education as an important tool for development of every nation cannot be divorced from the values of society in which it is nurtured. This study may be considered significant in a number of ways:
Students may find it valuable because the results may help them to contribute meaningfully towards achieving peaceful and virile nation. The study may also assist students to develop a sense of national awareness and good human qualities necessary for peaceful co-existence and interdependence in order to achieve progress.
The study hopes to contribute to the understanding of the meaning and objectives of Social Studies and the problems associated with the teaching and learning of the subject in secondary schools by school administrators.
The study will further enable parents to see the need to train their children of wards on positive attitude and values. The study will be significant to the state ministry of education being the education controlling agency as it will help the
inspectorate to monitor the teaching of attitude and values as JSS level through the instrumentality of Social studies education attitudes and values.
The study will be relevant to the researchers because it serve as reference materials
In addition, the study may further enhance the attention and role interest of teachers, policy makers and curriculum planners/developers in social attitudes and values as tools for effective citizenship transmission by stimulating further researches, especially in the areas relating to methods and strategies of citizenship content, in order to achieve a virile nation.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study focused on assessment of social attitude and values as tools for citizenship transmission. The research was restricted to all JSS II JSS III Students public secondary schools in Niger State. The study was restricted to Social Studies Students in Junior Secondary Schools due to the fact that they constitute a large proportion of youths that are vulnerable to anti-social behaviours and activities in the society and are also the beneficiaries of the citizenship contents in social studies education attitudes and values. And the study covered Kontagora Educational Zone in Niger state, which comprises four Local Governments, Kontagora, Mariga, Mashegu and Wushishi, all the schools in Kontagora and Wushishi Local Governments are tagged Urban schools, while the schools in Mashegu and Mariga Local Governments are tagged rural schools.
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