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Guidance and counseling has gone through various stages of development, corresponding with the prevailing philosophical view of man and his place in the world. People have found it necessary to work together for the common protection and comfort since from time beginning, and therefore guidance and counseling plays an important role in the development of a total person, in terms of working to their benefit to ask and give advice when the need arises.
Guidance and counseling have no specific definitions professionals in the field have attempted to define these two terms in the own different ways. Miller (1980) in his own perspective definition says: Guidance and counseling as the process of helping individuals achieve the self understanding and self-direction which is necessary to make the maximum adjustment to school, home and community. Mohammed (1987) defined guidance as the development of capacities for making wise decisions, overcoming personal problems, understanding the world around one and achieving satisfactory adjustment in school life.
Counseling is the heart of the entire guidance work. The care of helping process is the relationship expressed through interaction between the counselor and the counselee.
It is characterized by an immediate interaction in which each person is sensitive to the other.
Stone (1980) defined “counseling as a special interaction between the client and the counselor with the aim of helping the client understand himself, to take decision regarding his problem”. Thus a close examination of the concept of guidance and counseling tends to show a close relationship between them and the objections of primary education in Nigeria as spelt out by the National policy on Education. Historical foundation of education (1978). state that the demands for primary school guidance and counseling began as far back as (1960). The concept of guidance and counseling in Nigerian Schools is not new. Earlier, the head teachers and teachers used to perform these functions of guidance and counseling as part of their personal roles with the rise of technology in industrialized societies and with increasing diversification in academics disciplines. Children especially those under the age of fourteen year find it very difficult to make their minds about what sort of carrier and it also revive a variety of conflicting issues in the child’s of pupils’ traditional periods. One of the main objective of educational psychology is that of prediction of success in school professions and personal relationship with others. To make such predictions worthwhile. Precise knowledge of at least three factors are necessary, these factors are:
i. Knowledge of aspect of international situation between the child and his environment.
ii. Knowledge about the child’s abilities, aptitudes, interest attitudes at home and social background.
iii. Knowledge of the aspect of qualities needed for optional performance in the academic professions.
Early treatment of problems in the primary school stage might facilitate the development of the decision making, skills, and personal development of the child. Programmes of highly specialized activities should be implemented in the primary schools in order to help the pupils make wise, intelligent choices and decisions, with this it will help individuals to understand his potentials, weakness aptitudes, interest etc.
1.1 Background of the study
Kaduna North Local Government is one of the local governments that are existing in Kaduna State. It was formally part of defund North Nigeria. It was developed by the then British as the Administrative Capital of the then Northern Nigeria.
Kaduna North Local Government is situated on the global latitude 10,90 of the equator and 70 50 East of the Greenwich Meridian. Kaduna North Local Government is sharing boarders and boundaries with Kaduna South Local Government, Chikun Local Government and Igabi Local Government Area experiences distinct dry and wet seasons. It is richly endowed with several natural resources which are supportive to industrial, agricultural and commercial development.
Kaduna North Local Government area comprises of many ethnic groups, principal among them are Hausa, Gwari and other smaller-ones. English and Hausa are spoken constantly as English serves as the official language. In terms of transportation, the local government is strategically located in the central part of Nigeria with excellent accessibility arising from a convergence of different transport modes linking trunk ‘A’ roads. The railway is the major transport for agricultural and other bulk goods to different locations, so also road transport plays a vital role.
Kaduna North Local Government comprises of people who believed in different kinds of religions, three main groups are identified namely Islam, Christianity, and African traditional faiths. The Islam holidays are three time in a year. Ide-Fitr, Idel-Kabir and Idel-Maulied, while Christians to also have three holidays in a year. Good Friday, Easter Day and Christmas. All these holidays and declared as public holidays. While in the aspect of occupation.
Kaduna North Local Government Area has three districts comprising of the following:
1. Doka District
2. Gabasawa District
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
We will look at the objective of primary education as stipulated by the National Policy on Education 91977) before looking at the specific objectives of this study.
i. Acquiring some skills and the appreciation of manual work.
ii. Development of permanent literacy and numeracy.
iii. Development of a sound standard of individual conduct and behaviour.
iv. To advice all round self-development and individual excellence.
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The National Policy on Education (1981) defined primary education as an institution for children aged normally between 6 and 11 years. This document rightly observed that, since the rest of educational system is built up, the primary school is the key to the success or failure of the whole educational system. There is an unlimited opportunity for development or preventive guidance and counseling at the primary school level. Children problems do not start automatically in the secondary school. In most cases there is a buildup which could be traced back to early childhood.
Durojaiye (1976) sees child growth as a continuous process, what happens at one stage can be carried over into and influences the next stage.
Apart from the need for the development guidance and counseling in the primary schools. Looking at the present condition of the primary schools children in Kaduna North Local Government area, they are faced with a great deal and number of problems that calls for the immediate need for the emergence of organized guidance and counseling in the primary schools situated in the area.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of the study is to facilitate the needs for organized guidance and counseling services in the primary schools. In view of the apparent ignorance of many school pupils about career prospect and other forms of problems call for the dividend organized guidance and counseling in our schools. A review of various research findings for example, IKEOTUOKIYE (1978), DENGA (1975) and a lot of others here shown that there is need for guidance and counseling in the primary school level. Thus those pupils whose received guidance and counseling services derived immense benefit from the process. Child growth is a continuous process. What happens at one stage can be carried over into and influence the next stage.
Apart from the need for the development of guidance and counseling, there are a lot of primary school children’s needs, concern and problems which called for guidance and counseling. There are a lot more difficulties that are being experienced with secondary school which need much guidance and counseling in primary schools. Another important factor for the study of guidance and counseling is that, problems and needs characterized everyday living. Each stage of life has special and unique problems and concern that calls for guidance and counseling. The period of childhood, is one of the rapid growth and learning during which the child makes thousands of adjustments to the school, home and the society, thus the primary school will help in facilitating their various adjustment needs.
Furthermore, guidance and counseling programmes are essential ingredients in curriculum development both inside and outside the schools. The purpose of which will help pupils to identify their aptitude, abilities, interests, ambition, resources. The knowledge or guidance and counseling will help primary school pupils overcome the psychological, mental frustration and depression that might have developed due to lack of organized guidance and counseling in the primary school. With the new 6-3-3-4 system of education, there will be the need for valid and reliable psychological tests right from the grassroots that is the primary school. Guidance and counseling is very important needed at that stage.
Infact, there is the need for guidance and counseling at all levels of Nigeria society, since on the whole of the Nigeria society will become more aware and enlightened on the healthy relationship between man and his fellow man, his environment, and the meaning of the physical forces around him.
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Perhaps in any human endeavour there is bound to be some short coming. The research however is not exceptional. The researchers the process of conducting the research encountered some problems. The factors that limited the successful and efficient conduct of this research.
i. Communication Barrier: Some of the pupils don’t understand English there is also a problem of translation.
ii. None response from some of the respondents who either refused to answer some of the questions or so.
iii. Transportation: movement between our college and the various primary schools in Kaduna North Local Government and other places was a serious problem due to the rate of transportation fare.
iv. Election: Due to the election period. During the presidential election there was outbreak of election violence. Which turn out to become something of religion instead of election there was curfew for 24 hours in Kaduna State which lasted for almost three weeks.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Some terms have been used in the process of this study which may have some ambiguity to the layman. It is worthy to explain them to help and assist readers on understanding the study.
Guidance: Mohammed (1987) defined it as the development of capabilities for making wise decisions overcoming personal problems understanding the world around on and achieving satisfactory adjustment in the school.
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