THE EFFECT OF GLOBAL WARMING ON FOREST RESOURCES IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, KADUNA STATE

THE EFFECT OF GLOBAL WARMING ON FOREST RESOURCES IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, KADUNA STATE

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1.1       INTRODUCTION

Global Warming is measurable increases in the average temperature of Earth’s atmosphere, oceans, and landmasses. Scientists believe Earth is currently facing a period of rapid warming brought on by rising levels of heat-trapping gases, known as greenhouse gases, in the atmosphere (Mastrandrea, 2007). Michael (2007) stated that Greenhouse gases retain the radiant energy (heat) provided to Earth by the Sun in a process known as the greenhouse effect. Greenhouse gases occur naturally, and without them the planet would be too cold to sustain life as we know it. Mastrandrea and Michael (2009) stressed that Forest is a plant community, predominantly of trees or other woody vegetation, occupying an extensive area of land. In its natural state, a forest remains in a relatively fixed, self-regulated condition over a long period of time. Climate, soil, and the topography of the region determine the characteristic trees of a forest.

The causes of global warming according to Markham (2009) observed that our ever increasing addiction to electricity from coal burning power plants releases enormous amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Markham (2009) state that the use of forests for fuel (both wood and for charcoal) is one cause of deforestation, but in the first world, our appetite for wood and paper products, our consumption of livestock grazed on former forest land, and the use of tropical forest lands for commodities like palm oil plantations contributes to the mass deforestation of our world.

(Derek, 2009) observed that forests remove and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and this deforestation releases large amounts of carbon, as well as reducing the amount of carbon capture on the planet. The high rate of application of nitrogen-rich fertilizers has effects on the heat storage of cropland (nitrogen oxides have 300 times more heat-trapping capacity per unit of volume than carbon dioxide) and the run-off of excess fertilizers creates ‘dead-zones’ in our oceans. In addition to these effects, high nitrate levels in groundwater due to over-fertilization are cause for concern for human health.

Effect of global warming (Clifford, 2004) stressed that Scientists use elaborate computer models of temperature, precipitation patterns, and atmosphere circulation to study global warming Based on these models, scientists have made many projections about how global warming will affect weather, agriculture, wildlife, and plant and animals. Many changes linked to rising temperatures are already being observed. Clifford (2004) observed that Scientist’s project that the polar regions of the Northern Hemisphere will heat up more than other areas of the planet, and glaciers and sea ice will shrink as a result of global warming effect. Regions that now experience light winter snows may receive no snow at all. In temperate mountains, snowlines will be higher and snowpack will melt earlier. Growing seasons will be longer in some areas. Winter and nighttime temperatures will tend to rise more than summer and daytime temperatures. Many of these trends are already beginning to be observed. Arctic temperatures, for example, have increased almost twice as much as the global average over the past 100 years.

Plants and animals will find it difficult to escape from or adjust to the effects of global warming. Scientists have already observed shifts in the lifecycles of many plants and animals, such as flowers blooming earlier and birds hatching earlier in the spring. Many species have begun shifting where they live or their annual migration patterns due to warmer temperatures (Johnny, 2008)

Forest resources and the uses of forest resources, (Adams and David L., 2008) observed that Forests are the most important resource of our globe. Naturally formed forests are found in such parts of globe - where the factors of plant growth have been ideal for several centuries. For this reason, they are mostly found in regions of high rainfall and regions of high altitude.

The usefulness of forests is spread to commercial exploitation of forest for timber, providing fire wood, providing raw materials to many industries, maintenance of birds and wildlife animals, maintenance of ecological balance, prevention of soil erosion, etc. In different parts of world, we have evergreen forests (in equatorial belt and parts of tropics), deciduous forests (in parts of tropics and temperate regions), coniferous forests (in temperate and arctic regions) scrub forest (in dry regions). Each one of them is different in respect of composition of species, atmospheric features of its location, density of plants and type of wildlife it has harbored (David L., 2008)

Problems of forest resource availability according to Terborgh (1999) Affect Loss of trees which makes global warming worse, through photosynthesis, trees remove carbon dioxide from the air, produce oxygen, and store carbon as wood. Forest preserves water, soil, plants and wildlife. Their destruction aggravates droughts, soil erosion, and pollution of watercourses, and causes extensive flooding, and increased pest populations due to the ecological imbalance.

The international herald tribune (Jan. 25, 2000) stressed that forests are natural dams that leave and litter on the forest floor, retaining and purifying rainwater so absent of the resources is disastrous. Forest logging allows rapid run-off and destroys the ability of the soil to absorb water.

Terborgh (1999) also stressed that absent of forest resource availability agitate soil erosion and can lead to silt entering the lakes streams and other water sources. This can decrease local water quality and contribute to poor health in populations in the area.

Measures to combat forest resource availability and global warming,  Responding to the challenge of controlling forest resource availability and global warming will require fundamental changes in energy production, transportation, industry, government policies, and development strategies around the world. These changes take time. The challenge today is managing the impacts that cannot be avoided while taking steps to prevent more severe impacts in the future.

(Redmond and Schneider (2008); Mastrandrea, 2009) observed that reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, also called greenhouse gas mitigation, is a necessary strategy for controlling global warming. Preserving and planting more trees. Trees, especially young and fast-growing ones, soak up a great deal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store carbon atoms in new wood. Slowing the rate of deforestation and planting new trees can help counteract the buildup of greenhouse gases which causes global warming there by depleting the forest resources. Reforestation would facilitate, restoring the ecosystem services provided by forests including carbon storage, water cycling and wildlife habitat, reducing the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, rebuilding wildlife habitats.

Creating public awareness on the importance of forest resource availability and implication of forest depletion is needed according to Simeon (2015). Therefore the researchers are prompted to go on to provide possible solutions looking at the causes, effects and the possible solutions of solving the problems of global warming on forest resource availability.

1.2       Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to examine the effect of global warming on forest resources in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State. 

The specific objectives of the study include;

1.      To examine the perception of inhabitant of Kaduna metropolis on global warming.

2.      To access the availability of forest resources in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna.

3.      To identify the causes of forest resource depletion in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna.

4.      To identify problems associated with forest resources availability in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna.

5.      To identify measures toward combating forest resources availability.

1.3       Statement of Research Hypothesis

Drawing from the above objectives, are the following research hypothesis;

 = there is no significant difference between global warming and forest depletion in the area of study.

 = there is significant difference between global warming and forest depletion in the area of study.

1.4       Description of the Study Area

Kaduna town is a post colonial urban centre as well as the former capital of the Northern Nigeria; Kaduna town is located between longitude 060300E of the Greenwich Meridian, and also Latitude 09000 and 11030N of the equator. It has a land of approximately 48,4732 square kilometers, the state was selected by Lord Luggard in 1912 as the most strategic place for the administration and military headquarters for the new protectorate of northern Nigeria (Lock 1969:19).

The basic geological structure is magmatic of mixed streaky rock, granite in parts with darker soften bands and varied erosion is mainly by the small streams that cut deep gullies leaving the residual laterite caps to be gradually eaten away at the edges by natural forces of rain, wind and vegetation. The water table is usually quite high; wells sunk to it are comparatively shallow, bore to depth of about fifty feet (Lock 1967:20).

There is no evidence of any mineral wealth in the area. However, laterite and granites are found on the hills while sand and gravel are found on the bottom in abundance for building. The relief is almost on gently undulating plain with land ranging from one thousand five hundred feet to two thousand feet above sea level in some parts of the area (Lock 1967:21).

Kaduna State forms a portion of the country's cultural meltina Dot. Apart from six maior ethnic groups found in the State, there are over twenty other ethnic minority groups, each with its language and arts or religion different from the other (census 2006).

Works of art and pottery (e.g. the "Nok Terracotta") found in the southern parts suggest that it is a major cultural centre. Among the major ethnic groups are Kamuku, Gwari, Kadara in the west, Hausa and Kurama to the north and Northeast. "Nerzit" is now used to describe the Jaba, Kaje, Koro, Kamanton, Kataf, Morwa and Chawai instead of the derogato ry term "southern Zaria people". Also, the term "Hausawa" is used to describe the people of Igabi, ikara, Giwa and Makarti LGAs, which include a large proportion of rural dwellers who are strictly "Maguzawas."

In the north, the Hausa and some immigrants from the southern states practice Islam and majori ty of the people in the southern LGAs profess Christianity. The major Muslim festivals are the "Salah" celebrations of "ldEIfitri" and "ldEIKabir", while Christmas, New Year and Easter are observed by the Christians. The total population of the twenty three (23) local government areas of Kaduna state is  6,066,562 and the population of our study areas are: ZARIA having 408,198, KADUNA SOUTH having 402,390, and CHIKUN having 368,250  (Google, census 2006).

1.5       Materials and Methods

This chapter deals with the strategies adopted in collecting data and analysis in order to achieve the desired objectives of the study, the data for the study was generated through primary and secondary sources. The primary data was by means of questionnaire/interview while secondary data was by means of published and non-published documented works. The methods of data analysis employed for the study are simple percentages, mean, and variance. A total of 50 questionnaires were administered to three (3) selected local government area in Kaduna state using simple random sampling techniques.

The study design used is face to face administering of questionnaire, the questionnaires were shared and raw data collected are analyzed. The simple percentages method was used in calculating responses, the percentage of the respective responses which were worked out and classified into table for easy analysis. Analysis of variance F-ratio (ANOVA) was used for comparism.

1.6       Data Presentation and Analysis

In order to ascertain whether there is significant difference between global warming and forest depletion in the area of study or not, fifty (50) questionnaires was administered to inhabitant of that location through simple random techniques. The responses of the respondent on the questionnaire  was use to analyzed the data gotten with reference to the analysis of variance F-Ratio (ANOVA) to know if the hypothesis is to be accepted or rejected.

Table 1: global warming and forest depletion in Kaduna metropolis

= 993

N= 20

Mean (x) of A & D are approximated to be 97 &18 for accurate result.

In analyzing the result we ought to find:

       I.            Total variance

    II.            Total within group variance

 III.            Total between group variance

Ø  Total variance

                        D

                                    D2

So total variance is = 33289

Ø  Total within group variance

                                    D

                                    D2

So total within group variance is = 1613

Ø  Total between group variance

How to get total between group variance

Total between group variance =total variance – total within group variance

I.e. total between group variance: 33289 – 1613 = 31676

So total variance is = 31676

Source of variance sum

F-Ratio =

F-Ratio =

F-Ratio = 104.74

Calculated F-Ratio = 104.74

Table value = 3.24

Decision rule:

The rule states that accept Ho when the calculated F-Ratio is greater than the table value, therefore the Ho hypothesis is rejected and Hi hypothesis is accepted because the F-Ratio value is greater than the table value. That is there is significant difference between global warming and forest depletion in the area of study.

Sex structure

Source: field survey 20





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