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The study assessed the implementation of Geography Education Program in colleges of education in
Enugu State, Nigeria. The research problem of this study was as a result of student’s poor performance in geography education. Four objectives were formulated which are: to examine the extent to which laboratory facilities and equipment are adequately provide for the implementation of Geography Education Program (GEP) in College of Education in Enugu State, determine the adequacy of the provision of manpower for the implementation of Geography Education Program (GEP) in College of Education in Enugu State, ascertain whether there are adequate funds to implement Geography Education Program (GEP) in Enugu State and find out the methodological approaches adopted for the implementation of Geography Education Program (GEP) in Colleges of Education in Enugu State. Research questions and hypotheses were in line with these objectives. This study used descriptive survey design. The population for this study was one thousand five hundred and sixty-eight (1,568) and the sample of three hundred and six (306) was purposively selected. A self-developed questionnaire was designed based on four Point-Likert modified rating scale. The instrument was pilot tested and found reliable for the study with 0.799 reliability index. Frequency counts and chi-square statistical tools were used in analyzing the data. The first hypothesis was retained while the remaining three were rejected. The findings indicated that there was inadequate provision of facilities and equipment for the implementation of Geography Education Program (GEP) in the study area, there was inadequate manpower and funds for the implementation of Geography Education Program (GEP) as well as inappropriate use of teaching methodologies. Finally the research recommended the following among others; the stakeholders of education in collaboration with other agencies and non-governmental organization should come to the aid of geography education by procuring adequate facilities and equipment in these states (Kano & Jigawa). Enugu State government should consider the possibilities of establishing the educational trust fund similar to that of TETFUND at States level to support geography education in their colleges of education. This will intensify the government effort towards the financing of tertiary education across the states.
1.1 Background to the Study
Education is an instrument per excellence for effective national development. It therefore remained a social process in capacity building and maintenance of society. According to Ayo (2011) Education is the process through which individuals are made functional members of the society through transmission of knowledge, skills and attitude. Thus, education promotes better health increases skills and higher productivities, providing chances to live in dignity and make wise and rationale decision about one’s life. In line with these views, the Federal Government of Nigeria in her National Policy on Education (NPE, 2004) adopted education as an instrument par excellent for affecting national development and steps that education will continue to be highly rated in national development plans. Education, therefore, makes a nation/country to spell out in clear and unequivocal terms the philosophy and objectives that underlie its investment for the development. In Nigeria, it is observed that science education emphasizes the teaching and learning of science process and principles. This leads to fundamental and applied research in the sciences at all levels of education.
Tertiary education is the type of education given after secondary education; also colleges of education are among the institutions that provide such kind of education. The courses offered in the colleges of education as tertiary education institutions include: sciences/technical education in which geography education is among them.
Geography education is of paramount importance to the nation development and it is on this premise that the federal government of Nigeria sought to introduce geography studies in the education system from primary to higher institutions. In line with this NPE (2004) has clearly explain that Nigeria cannot afford to ignore the role which geography literacy plays in achieving the national goals of technological development considering the fact that, educational system around the world face formidable challenges that taxing conventional strategies. Fresh approaches are needed to address persistent problems of the past and provide student with an education relevant to the needs of the modern information based global economy.
Therefore, from the foregoing, based on the importance of geography to teaching and learning, it is obvious that introducing the system can be said to be in the right direction. Fajola (2001) asserts that, the geography is diligent and consistent in its mode of operation to perform multifunctional roles in teaching and learning process at all levels of education. Geography is an electronic device which can hold vast quantities of information and accurate store and information for use. It is capable of carrying and processing input calculation according to predetermined set of instructions. Geography is felt in establishment like banks, power holding company, independent national electoral commission, payroll processing, examination conduction, diagnosing sickness in hospital, engineering and management in general (Mbam, 2000).
Hence Nigeria has resolved to introduce geography education in primary and secondary schools, there is need to produce professional teachers in the discipline. Although, there has been provision for the training of geography’s scientist in the universities and polytechnics, but little attention was paid to the training of teachers in the geography education (NCCE, 2012).
However, it was stated clearly in the NCCE (2012) guidelines that, geography education curriculum are meant to achieve objectives as: To teach geography studies at primary and school levels; write geography programme and process data with maximum speed and accuracy, demonstrate reasonably high level of competence in the preparation for further studies in Geography Education Program, motivate pupils interest in the study of geographys by appropriate using ICT Teaching –learning strategies and apply the use of geography as an aid in daily life activities. All the aforementioned objectives cannot be attained without the provision ofeffective teacher education programme through the colleges of education. For this reason therefore, this study intend to investigate how geography education programme is implemented in colleges of education in Kano, andJigawa states respectively.
In the educational system, the geography is a powerful teaching tool and as a medium of instruction that has helped to improve students‟ performance in school subjects and has taken care of problem confronting teachers. It guides a student through a course of instruction and in such way to facilitate understanding of the subject matter. The application of geographys in the teaching and learning is really topical; and thus, geography programme facilitates communication between students and teacher and beyond the classroom setting, like distanced
students‟instruction. It should be noted that geography cannot replace teacher, it is rather an extension of the teacher, blackboard and other teaching materials (Adamu, 2000). Afolabi (2001)explains that the National Policy on Education (NPE) indicated the government intention to improve the quality of education in Nigeria through the use of geographys in our classroom. There is no doubt that geography education produces and promotes competency and efficiency in teaching/learning process. But the magnitudes at which the geography education facilitatesquality of teaching attract little concern from academics and policy makers in this part of the country. Thus, this study aimed at finding out the extent at which geography education curriculum is properly implemented in colleges of education in Enugu State for the production of effective geography education teachers especially at the lower levels of our education (preprimary, primary and secondary levels).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Education is an all-round development that requires the need of so many resources for proper teaching and learning. Geography eitheras an instructional material or as a field that one intends to studies is highly needed in this present world of geography of almost all aspect of life. Right from time immemorial computation and geography has significant role in the education system.
Geography education is one of the recent educational programmes that attract policy makers in education, educators and educational institutions which are now in full capacity in all the educational institution and it is pursuit up to the highest level of education programme (Ph.D.). Provision of available and relevant materials to help in the implementation of any educational programme at any level of education is one of the major sources of problems to the implementation of any programme.
It should be clearly noticed that provision of available and recent geography is one of the basic requirements in the implementation of geography education programme in our educational institutions, apart from the employment of adequate and qualified personnel. Both teaching and non-teaching staff are equally important on the implementation of geography education programme.
Some researches shows that, one of the major problems in Nigeria‟s educational system is the fact that almost all the necessary materials needed for proper implementation of educational programme are not available leaving our teachers at all levels with explanation of an abstract material which ideally required to be provided for teachers to use and for learners to see use and make learning more concrete and meaningful.
In Nigeria‟s colleges of education, geography education programme is introduced and some geography labs and geography practical classes were provided with little or no other required facilities (geography, keyboards, mouse and electricity).Which geography education programme could not be done without them, all these coupled with overcrowded class size retards the implantation of the programme. Heavy literature on the implementation of geography education programme in Nigeria Primary and Secondary schools (public) level of education also stresses the inability for a school or college to adopt geography education as requisite course/subject for its curriculum resulting in producing unqualified teachers to teach geography education. Thus, will be resulted to poor performance on the part of students especially, on the use of modern facilities such as, electronic media based instruction in teaching and learning process. However, inability to implement geography education curriculum properly in the colleges of education can be resulted to poor utilization of modern facilities which can lead to produce unqualified geography education teachers in our primary and secondary schools all over the nation. This also leads to the poor improvement on ICT which is among the most recent trend in education.
This is the right time in which a study of this nature is highly needed. The fact is that in recent times, the world has witnessed a rapid increase in the technological innovations. The era therefore ushers in the advent of the electronic geography system among other modern technologies. In
schools, geography’s are widely used; and the need for geography technology and literacy in the educational system has become more relevant. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the situation of geography Education in Nigeria especially the process of implementation in Colleges of Education.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This study is carried out to achieve the following objectives:
1. Examine the extent to which laboratory facilities and equipment are adequately provided for the implementation of Geography Education Program (GEP)in Colleges of Education in Enugu State.
2. Determine the adequacy of the provision of manpower for the implementation of
Geography Education Program (GEP) in Colleges of Education in Enugu State State.
3. Ascertain whether there are adequate funds to implement Geography Education Program
(GEP) in Colleges of Education in Enugu State.
4. Find out the methodological approaches adopted for the implementation of Geography
Science Education (GEP) in Colleges of Education in Enugu State.
1.4 Research Questions
In line of the research objectives, the following research questions are addressed:
1. To what extent are laboratory facilities and equipment adequately provided for the implementation of Geography Education Program (GEP) in Colleges of Education in Enugu State?
2. What is the extent of the provision of adequate manpower for the implementation of Geography Education Program (GEP) in Colleges of Education in Enugu State?
3. To what degree are funds adequate for the implementation of Geography Education Program (GEP) in Colleges of Education in Enugu State?
4. What are the methodological approaches adopted for the implementation of Geography?
Education Program (GEP) in Colleges of Education in Enugu State?
The study tested the following null hypotheses at 0.05 alpha:
1. There is no significant difference between teachers and students opinion on the adequacy of laboratory facilities and equipment for the implementation of Geography Education Program (GEP) at Colleges of Education in Enugu State;
2. There is no significant difference between teachers and students opinion on the provision of adequate manpower for the implementation of Geography Education Program (GEP) at Colleges of Education in Enugu State;
3. There is no significant difference between teachers and students opinion on the adequacy of funds for the implementation of Geography Education Program (GEP) at Colleges of Education in Enugu State;
4. There is no significant difference between teachers and students opinionon the methods employed for the implementation of Geography Education Program (GEP) at Colleges of
Education in Enugu State;
1.6 Basic Assumption of the Study
The basic assumptions of the study are as follows.
1. The lecturer(s) and Students should appropriate used of the knowledge geography science such as geography assisted instructions (CAI) in their teaching and learning process for the purpose of enhancing students‟ academic performance in various course of study which are related to acquisition knowledge and skills in colleges of education in Enugu State state.
2. Laboratory facilities should available in both Enugu State colleges of education for effective teaching and learning of Geography Education Program this will provide well trained and qualified students teachers during their teaching practice exercise and improve the lower and upper basic level of education in Enugu State.
3. If the students are taught with adequate geography laboratory facilities students‟ academic performance will be very high especially in learning of Geography Education Program and the society benefit more by the productivity of the students as works after graduating from state colleges of education in Enugu State.
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