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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page - - - - - - - - - - i
Certification - - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - - iv
Table of Contents - - - - - - - - - vi
List of Tables - - - - - - - - - viii
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - ix
1.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 1
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - - 3
1.3 Objectives of the Study - - - - - - - - 4
1.4 Scope of the Study - - - - - - - - 4
1.5 Justification of the Study - - - - - - - 4
2.0 Literature Review - - - - - - - - 6
2.1 Agroforestry - - - - - - - - 6
2.2 The Need for Adoption of Agroforestry - - - - 7
2.3 Agroforestry Systems and Practices - - - - 8
2.4 Criteria of a Good Agroforestry System - - - - 10
2.5 Types of Agroforestry System - - - - - - 10
2.6 Agroforestry Practices - - - - - - - 11
2.7 Concepts of Agroforestry - - - - - - - 12
2.8 Range and Classification of Agroforestry - - - - 13
2.9 Advantages of Agroforestry - - - - - - 14
3.0 Materials and Methods - - - - - - - 15
3.1 Study Area - - - - - - - - 15
3.2 Research Design - - - - - - - - 16
3.3 Sampling Procedure - - - - - - - 18
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection - - - - - - 18
3.5 Method of Data Collection - - - - - - 18
3.6 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - 18
4.0 Results and Discussion - - - - - - - 19
4.1 Results - - - - - - - - - - 19
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations - - - - - 24
5.1 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - 24
5.2 Recommendations - - - - - - - - 25
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Demographic Information about the Respondents - - 21
Table 2: Agroforestry practice found in Etinan LGA - - - 22
Table 3: Crops found in Etinan LGA - - - - - - 22
Table 4: Sources of knowledge of Agroforestry practice - - - 23
Table 5: Problems encountered in Agroforestry practices by
respondents in LGA - - - - - - - 23
This study was carried out to assess the various agroforestry practices in Etinan Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Oral interview, questionnaire and personal discussions were used to collect data from randomly selected twenty (20) villages out of sixty four (64) villages in Etinan Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Results showed that 54.5% of the respondents were males while 45.5% were females. Age distributions ranged from 10-20 years (10%), 21-30years (28-5%), 31-40 years (29.5%), and 41-50 years (32%). (35.5% ) of the respondents are single, (54.5%) are married 7% are widow. (40%) are full time farmers, (11.5%) are civil servant, (20%) are student, (28.5%) are petty traders/farmers. The result also showed that sources of agroforestry knowledge came from extension agents. Educational qualifications of respondents were as follows; 29.5% (primary school), 24.5% (secondary school) 26%, (tertiary school), 24% (informed education). The types of agroforestry practices adopted by respondents, mode of cultivation of agroforestry farms, average size of farmland, problem in management of the farm, efforts made to solve the problems, other source of income to support the farming, what they did to improve yields of crops.
1.1 BACKGROUNG OF THE STUDY
Agroforestry is concept that harmonizes agriculture with forestry and pastoralism. Owimubim and Etegbeye (2012) described agro forestry as a multiple land – use system in which agricultural crops and weedy perennials are grown on the same land managed unit. Atolagbe (2002) reported that man’s life is unimaginable without the natural environment to supply him with his basic need such as air to breathe, water to drink, food and/or animal products. The integration of trees into the farming system could go a long way to help ameliorate environmental problems. Specifically by creating micro climates favourable for crop growth, and enhancing the recycling of materials to provide a more complex ground cover which could help to protect the soil from erosion and moderate extreme temperatures (Adedire, 2004). The increasing size of the land population has led to tremendous rise in the demand for living space, food and energy. As a result, more forest land is now converted to farmland and other uses than ever before. In addition, the present heavy dependence of fuel wood by rural people and urban poor on developing countries like Nigeria has led to increased deforestation. Deforestation has consequences that include climate change, desert encroachment, soil erosion, sand dune formation, landslides, flooding and biodiversity less (Salami, 1998).
Agroforestry is a land use management systems in which trees or shrubs are grow around or among crops or pastureland. It combines shrubs and trees in agricultural and forestry technologies to create more diverse, productive, profitable, wealthy, ecologically sound, and sustainable land-use systems.
Agroforestry has a lot in common with intercropping both have two or more plant species (such as nitrogen fixing plants) in close interaction both provide multiple outputs, as a consequence, higher overall yields and because a single application or input is shared, costs are reduced. Beyond these, there are gains specific to agroforestry. Agroforestry is an activity that combines production on the same plot of land, from annual agricultural activities (such as crops and pasture) and from delayed long-term production by trees (for example timber and services). This is obtained either by planting trees on agricultural land or by cropping (for example after thinning) on forested land. Plots that combine arable intercrops in the foresting trees are silvorable plots, while wooded plots with pasture under the tree canopy are known as silvopastoral plots.
An agroforestry practice usually denotes a specific land management operation of and agroforestry nature on a farm or other management unit and consists usually of arrangement of agroforestry components. Several such practices will be involved in the constitution and maintenance of an agroforestry system, commodity these practices includes the arrangement of components in space and have been recorded from different parts of the world, the distinction agroforestry practices that constitute these system in various eco-regions are only few. Alley cropping (hedgerow intercropping), boundary planting of tree, trees and shrubs as shelterbelt) and windbreaks, use of woody perennials in soil conservation tree gardens, wood lots on agricultural lands.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Our forest and its resources are fast disappearing and faced with challenges due to problems of climate change which this affects agriculture in several ways, including its direct impact on food production. Another problem that farmers face is hunger and poverty; this is because agriculture is predominantly in the hands of rural small holder farmers, who have being generally described as poor and hungry. Moreover, since the discovery of oil in Nigeria, the attention of the government has been diverted away from agriculture to petroleum resource development.
There is therefore the need for concerted efforts toward tackling this menace. Agroforestry has gradually enhanced the socio-economic livelihood of rural Nigeria by boosting income earning potentials, human welfare, food and nutritional security as well as provision of fuel mood, fodder for animal growth rate of 2.5 to 3% per annum.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: GENERAL OBJECTIVE
The overall objective of this work is to ascertain the position of agroforestry practices in Etinan Local Government Area in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. However, the specific objectives of the study were:
(i) to identify the types of agroforestry practices adopted by farmers in Etinan Local Government Area.
(ii) to identify the plant species cultivated on each of the produce; and identify for find out or ascertain
(iii) to tackle the problems that farmers face in agroforestry practice and its effects in Etinan Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study covers the entire Etinan Local Government Area. However sample villages were selected from each of the clans to represent the study area.
Agroforestry involves growing trees on farms, alongside crops and livestock to improve livelihood of the rural poor and protect the natural resources. ICRAF (2000) reported that about 1.2 million people, 20% of the world’s population depend to a large extend on agroforestry products and services for their survival.
Basically, the science of agroforestry involves the planting of specially selected trees and rotation with traditional crops and animals known for distinctive properties that allow them to improve the soil faster or protect the growth of crops. These trees and shrubs also have an intrinsic value of their own providing value by-products such as fruits, nuts, insecticides, oils, resins, mulch, fodder, fuel-wood and timber. The use of trees can help degraded lands, control erosion, stabilize water sheds and protect biodiversity. Impacts of agroforestry can reduce poverty through increased production of wood and other trees products for home consumption and sale, contributing to food security by restoring the soil fertility for food crops, cleaner water through reduced nutrient and soil runoff, countering global warming and the risk of hunger by increasing the number of drought, resistant trees.
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