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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                         i

Approval Page                                                                                ii

Declaration                                                                                      iii

Dedication                                                                                       iv

Acknowledgements                                                                        v       

Table of Contents                                                                           vi

List of tables

Abstract                                                                                            viii

CHAPTER ONE:         INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study                                                               1

Statement of the Problem                                                              3

Purpose of the Study                                                                     4

Significance of the Study                                                               5      

Research Question                                                                        6

Scope of the Study                                                                         6

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Health and Safety Policy in Construction of High Rise Building         7

Installation of Firefighting Equipment in High Rise Building                10

Provision of Emergency Exit in High Rise Building                              13    

Integration of Natural Ventilation in High Rise Building              16    

Summary of Review of Related Literature                                   20    

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

Research Design                                                                                     22

Area of the Study                                                                            22

Population of the Study                                                                 22

Sample and Sampling Techniques                                              23

Instrument for Data Collection                                                       23

Validation of the Instrument                                                                    24

Method of data collection                                                              24

Method of Data Analysis                                                               24

CHAPTER FOUR:      PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

Research Question 1                                                                     25

Research Question 2                                                                     26

Research Question 3                                                                     27

Summary of the findings                                                                28

Discussion of Findings                                                                            29

CHAPTER FIVE:         SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Re-statement of the Problem                                                        31

Summary of the Procedure Used                                                 31

Major Findings                                                                                32

Implications of the Study                                                               33

Conclusion                                                                                                33    

Recommendations                                                                         33

Limitations                                                                                                 34

Suggestion for Further Research                                                           35

References                                                                                     36

Appendix                                                                                         38


LIST OF TABLE

Table 1: Installation of Firefighting Equipment in High Rise Building in Kaduna Metropolis.                                                                             25    

Table 2: Provision of Emergency Exit in High Rise Building in Kaduna Metropolis                                                                                            26

Table 3: Provision of Ventilation in High Rise Building in Kaduna Metropolis                                                                               27


Abstract

The study sought to assess implementation of health and safety policies in construction of high rise building in Kaduna metropolis. The specific purposes of the study were to examine whether the installation of fire fighting equipment in high rise building in Kaduna metropolis follow the policies, examine whether the provision of emergency exit in high rise building in Kaduna metropolis is in line with the policies and examine whether the provision of ventilation in high rise building in Kaduna metropolis is in line with the policies. Three research questions were formulated to guide this study. The population of the study is 4469 occupants of high rise buildings and building engineers of which 60 was selected using simple random sampling technique as sample for this study. The study adopted descriptive survey research design and the area of study was Kaduna Metropolis. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire. Mean statistic was employed to analyse the data. The summary of the findings for this study revealed that  there is no provision of adequate fire fighting equipments in high rise buildings in Kaduna metropolis, there is adequate emergency exits and adequate ventilation in high rise buildings, where there are ventilation openings they are not properly located above the floor revealed among others. Based on the findings, recommendations were made which include that SEMA/FEMA should conduct a time to time inspection of high rise building to ensure compliance with the polices, the professional building bodies in conjunction with fire service should organize seminars and workshops to enlighten people on the implications of the non-implementation of the policies.



CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

A building can be defined as an enclosure made for person, animals or chalet utilized primarily for living, working and storage. It is a structure or something that is built for human habitation (Houghton, 2011). It can also be defined as something built with a roof and walls such as a house or factory. It can also be referred to as an act of building houses or boats (Harper,2014).

High rise building can be defined as a building being seven storey or more in height (Ontario,2016). It can also be defined as a multiple storey structure between 35 to 100 meters tall or a building of unknown height from 13 to 39 floors.

According to the Building Code of Hydrorabad, in India, a high rise building is one with four floors or more, or 15 to 18 metres or more in height (Harper, 2014). World Health Organization (W H O, 1946) defined health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of diseases or infirmity.

Safety is relative freedom from danger, risk, or threat of harm, injury, or loss to personnel and or property, whether caused deliberately. Safety of life and property is of utmost importance in the use of high rise building.

According to Federal Republic of Nigeria a National Fire Safety Code (2013), there are guidelines that serve as policies which if effectively implemented will enhance health and safety of users of high rise building. These include use of fire service equipment, resistive construction in high rise building, the installation of fire alarms system that incorporate voice communications components, back-up emergency exists, cameras, closed circuit television, dry chemical powder extinguishing system, carbon dioxide extinguishing system, and other features that work to increase the safety and health of the occupants of high rise building, and first respondents. Implementation is the process of making something that had officially been decided short to happen or be used. It is also defined as the realization of an application or execution of a plan, ideal, model, design specifications, standard and policy.

The National Fire Safety code can be adopted directly by the State and Local Government, or domiciled to suit their needs. This code will make no meaning unless the state and local governments actually see to its enforcement within their jurisdictions and also the building and engineering consultant are to advise their clients on the need for compliance right from the design storage. If all the requirements of the code are in place, there may be fewer emergencies to grapple with.

State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA) in Kaduna state operates to ensure proper management of disaster in all its ramifications in all 23 Local Government Areas in the state through the collaboration effort of other stake holders towards effective efficient and rapid response. State Emergency Management Agency in Kaduna contributes in prevention of flood disaster and fire outbreak in Kaduna, by enlightening the public through SEMA report. Fire out break has never happened in any of the high rise building in Kaduna, but it has happened in other building, duplexes, bungalows, market and industries. In recent time more high rise building are being constructed in Kaduna and the National Fire Safety Guidelines have to be followed for such buildings.   

Statement of the Problem

The building construction industry has become one of the major industries in Nigeria where many high rise building project contracts are handled by the building engineers, architect, and structural engineer. It is globally established that where high rise buildings are put into multiple occupations certain problems arise which eventually affect the building structure, occupant and the surrounding natural environment either directly or indirectly.

Fire outbreak in Nigeria Investment Development Bank (NIDB) in Lagos which occurred without functional fire fighting system weaked the structure causing it to collapse. Also on 19th of January, 2009, fire guttered the Lagos Zonal office of the Power Holding (Company of Nigeria (PHCN) in Marina Lagos and this led to the destruction of office equipment and vital documents, although no casualty was recorded.

These incidents simply showed failure of high rise building to respond to emergencies of this nature. This also indicates lack of compliance to the policies which serve as a guide to the occupant.

Based on these the problem of the study was whether the construction of high rise building in Kaduna metropolis follows the National Health and Safety Policies.

Purpose of the study

This research aimed at assessing the implementation of National Health and Safety Policies in construction of high rise building in Kaduna metropolis. Specifically the study sought to:

1.   Examine whether the installation of firefighting equipment in high rise building in Kaduna metropolis follows the policies.

2.   Examine whether the provision of emergency exit in high rise building in Kaduna metropolis is in line with the policies.

3.   Examine whether the provision of ventilation in high rise building in Kaduna metropolis is in line with the policies.

Significance of the study

The findings of this study if implemented would provide useful information to high rise building owners, occupants of the high rise building and construction industry in Nigeria.

The result of this study would help high rise building owners to know the benefit of adequately implementing the National Health and Safety Policies code that serve as a guide to every occupant living in the high rise building.

The finding of this study would also help the workers in high rise building to establish clear guidelines for the occupants which increase the life span of the building and the occupants.

This would boost the construction industries as the collapse of high rise building that could result from fire outbreak would be minimized. Also it would help the professional bodies concerned in giving adequate checks and balance. The findings of this study would also provide information to the policy makers and the implementing agents on extent of implementation of the policies therefore helping them to know the necessary adjustments for the improvement and proper implementation of the policies.

Research Question

The following questions were formulated to guide the study.

1.   To what extent does the installation of fire equipment in high rise building in Kaduna metropolis follow the National Health and Safety Policies?

2.   To what extent does provision of emergency exit in high rise building in Kaduna metropolis follow the National Health and Safety Policies?

3.   To what extent does provision of ventilation high rise building in Kaduna metropolis follow the National Health and Safety Policies?

Scope of the study

The study focused on the implementation of National Health and Safety Policies in the construction of high rise building in Kaduna metropolis. The study examined the level of implementation of the policies with respect to installation of fire fighting equipments adequacy and functionalities, provision of emergency exits and provision of ventilation in construction of high rise building in Kaduna metropolis.





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