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Abstract

This research examines the impact of land fill diversion and their impact on Nigeria. This has some socio economic and political implications on sustainable development, while the management of waste is a matter of national and international concern. Recent events in major cities of world have shown that the problems of waste management have become a “monster” that has aborted most efforts made by international, federal governments, and state city authorities. It has been established that the process of waste management contributes to increasing generation of green house gases that causes climate change and ozone layer depletion.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the study

The cities of third world countries are growing at very rapid rates compared to those in the developed nations. For instance, a UN-Habitat report observed that Africa is the fastest urbanizing continent having cities like Cairo, Lagos, Nairobi, Kinshasa among others growing at fast rates that would make them triple their current sizes by the year 2050 (UN-Habitat, 2010). Such high rate of growth of cities has implications for the provision of urban infrastructural services to prevent the proliferation of urban slum. The increasing growth of cities, therefore, has implications for municipal waste management among other social services required in the urban communities. Data from many of the cities shows inadequacy in urban social services like shelter, provision of safe drinking water and efficient management of solid wastes. The cities are therefore littered with ‘mountains’ of rubbish in landfills and open (in most cases illegal) waste dumps which are covered with flies and thus serve as breeding grounds for rodents and mosquitoes which are carriers of diseases. In a bid to examine the link between environmental pollution arising from waste dumps and public health, the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) conducted a pilot study of the Dandora Waste Dump in African. The study, as tentative as it was, showed that a link exists between the two. The extensive tests carried out on the soil and water around the dump site in comparison with samples from other sites as well as medical tests carried out on humans living around the dumpsite shows evidence of infections from water, land and air pollution. The leachates generated in the landfills and open dumpsites are sources of pollution which is inimical to public health (UNEP, undated). The conclusion from this and other studies has led to an increasing interest of researchers in the studies relating to several aspects of municipal solid waste management in urban cities of many nations (Yongsi, et al, 2008; Boadi and Kuitunen, 2005; Aluko and Sridhar 2005; Nwanta 2010; Aatamila et. al. 2010, among others). Many of the researchers who have undertaken studies in the area of environmental pollution are mainly from the natural sciences who are interested in studying the nature and the chemical properties of environmental pollution, as well as its effects on plants and animals (e.g. Yongsi et.al, 2008). Though some studies conducted by social scientists have examined the social consequences of the present urban waste management issues, yet, few of these studies examined the health implications of people living in close proximity of waste dumpsites (Sarkhel, 2006; Yongsi et. al 2008; Abul, 2010; Babatunde and Biala, 2010, Nabegu 2010, Nwanta et. al. 2010).

In particular the disposal of waste in landfills generates methane that has high global warming potential (Yesiller, Hanson and Liu, 2005). Energy consumption contributes directly to climate change by adding carbon-based molecules to the atmosphere in excess of naturally occurring amounts. Carbon molecules, primarily carbon dioxide from burning petroleum products, trap radiant heat and keep it from escaping from the Earth's atmosphere (IEA, 2005). The resulting warming of the air is changing our global climate. Thus, landfills are among the nations’ largest emitters of CO2 and CH4, the key greenhouse gases (GHGs) which modify the Earth’s climate, and as such effective mitigation of these greenhouse gas emissions is important and could provide environmental benefits and sustainable development, as well as reduce adverse impacts on public health (Sheehan, 2000; Briney, 2013).

The main objective of this study is therefore to examine the impact of landfill diversion in Nigeria, as well as the economic effects of living in such filthy environment. The rest of this study is organized as follows: Following this introductory section, we discuss the Theoretical Framework and Literature Review in Section two. Section three discusses the Methodology of Study while Section four gives the interpretation of data. Section five concludes the study.

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Developing country like Nigeria is particularly at risk, because of her bad waste management system and unhealthy disposal practices. Global temperature will continue to increase causing further disruption to climate patterns. Ultimately, all this can only be brought under control by engaging in sustainable waste management practices, and stabilizing greenhouse gases concentrations in the atmosphere. It is on this backdrop that the researcher intends to investigate the impact of land fill diversion in Nigeria.

1.3       OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objective of the study is to ascertain the land fill diversion and their impact on the environment in Nigeria. But for the successful completion of the study the researcher set the following sub-objective to be achieved:

i)             To ascertain the impact landfill diversion in Nigeria.

ii)           To ascertain the relationship between land diversion and environmental pollution

iii)          To ascertain the effect of solid waste management in reducing air pollution

iv)          To investigate the effect of land fill diversion on environmental pollution

1.4       RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the successful completion of the study, the following hypotheses were formulated:

H0: land fill diversion has no significant impact on the environment in Nigeria

H1: land fill diversion has a significant impact on the environment in Nigeria

H0: there is no significant relationship between landfill diversion and environmental pollution in Nigeria

H2: there is a significant relationship between landfill diversion and environmental pollution in Nigeria

1.5       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the ministry of environment in ensuring that the environment is devoid of pollution. The findings will also be of great benefit to the waste management agency in ensuring that the waste are properly disposed to ensure that it does not constitute a major air pollution in the society. The study will also be of importance to researcher who wishes to carry out investigation in similar topic. Finally, the study will be of importance to lecturers, students, teachers and academia’s as the findings will add to the pool of knowledge.

1.6       SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study covers landfill diversion and their impact on environment in Nigeria. But in the course of the study, the researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study. Some of these limitations are:

(a)Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.       

(b)Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.  

(c)Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Land Fill

A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden[1]) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and the oldest form of waste treatment (although the burial part is modern; historically, refuse was just left in piles or thrown into pits). Historically, landfills have been the most common method of organized waste disposal and remain so in many places around the world.

Land

Land, sometimes referred to as dry land, is the solid surface of the Earth that is not permanently covered by water. The vast majority of human activity throughout history has occurred in land areas that support agriculture, habitat, and various natural resources.

Waste

Waste is any substance which is discarded after primary use, or it is worthless, defective and of no use. Examples include municipal solid waste(household trash/refuse), hazardous waste, wastewater (such as sewage, which contains bodily wastes (feces and urine) and surface runoff), radioactive waste, and others.

1.8       ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.





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