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1.1 Background of the study
Road transportation is by far the commonest means of transportation in Nigeria when compared to other means like air, rail and water. The technology has made life easy compared to previous means of transportation such as the use of animals during the pre colonial era. Nigerian economy despite its flaws, has afforded a large number of its populace the means to own cars making road traffic a major problem with grave disadvantages. In Nigeria, road accidents have been a disturbing phenomenon that has constituted a menace. It is generally believed but not statistically proven that the rate of road accidents in Nigeria has geometrically increased. Road accidents are caused by various reasons, ranging from carelessness on the part of the drivers to the deplorable nature of our roads. Put differently, Nigerian roads have become killing fields without protection for their users. Travellers heave a sigh of relief if they make their destinations. The worrisome trend has tremendous negative impact on the nation’s health system as well as its social and economic aspirations. It was estimated that the total number of registered vehicles in Nigeria rose between 1990 – 2006 from 700,000 to 6,000,000 (Umar 2010). Despite the happiness this brought and change of quality of family lives associated with owning a vehicle, its possession has made so many families bereaved of their breadwinners or lovely ones due to unprecedented rate of road traffic accidents in Nigeria. According to the Federal Road Safety Commission, not less than 88,520 road users lost their lives between 1991 and 2000 alone, most victims being between 20-40 years. There is need to view road accident as a very major issue requiring urgent attention aimed at preventing premature deaths, reducing the health, social and economic impacts it portends to the average Nigerian. This disturbing assertion will be the bedrock of our statistical study on road accidents in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In Nigeria today, the issue of road accidents have become a teething problem. There has been a major problem of the cardinal factors responsible for road accidents in Nigeria. Another problem is to know if accidents in Nigeria are related to sex, age and educational background of road users. There is also confusion as to the major causes of road accidents in Nigeria. The above problems have been our chief motivators in undertaking this statistical research work.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This study is aimed at establishing the following objectives:
1. To know if road accidents in Nigeria are gender based, that is, do female road users fall victim of road accidents than their male counterparts
2. To equally know if road accidents in Nigeria are age based.
3. To ascertain if there is a statistical significant relationship between educational background and road accidents in Nigeria.
4. To know if record of road accidents in Nigeria has increased or not.
5. To educate Nigerians and those interested in this study on the outcome of our research
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: road accidents in Nigeria does not based on age
H1: road accidents in Nigeria based on age
H02: there is no statistical significant relationship between educational background and road accidents in Nigeria
H2: there is a statistical significant relationship between educational background and road accidents in Nigeria
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
One major significance of this study is to educate millions of Nigerians on the main causes of road accidents and ways to prevent or reduce them on our roads. Another significance of this study is to know if the number of road accidents has increased overtime. Thirdly, to know if the reported number of road accidents in Nigeria is gender based and also to know if there is a relationship between educational background and road accidents in Nigeria. We are also interested in knowing the major causes of road accidents in Nigeria so as to educate the Nigeria populace.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
For the purpose of this study as the topic depicts, the scope of the essay will be focused on the statistical analysis on the causes of road accidents in Nigeria. To know the relationship between bio- data factors and road accidents in Nigeria, that is, knowing if there is a relationship between age, educational background and gender on road accidents in Nigeria. It is necessary to mention some of the limitation of this research work. One of the major limitations is in the getting relevant educational materials used in the research work. Another limitation of this research work is the difficulty in obtaining relevant information in that a few of our values were missing but these missing values were not statistical significant enough to be noticed. It is hoped that despite this limitations, the study would still be useful to Nigerians, organizations etc.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Accident: an unpleasant event especially in a vehicle that happens unexpectedly and causes injury or damage
Road accident: a traffic accident involving vehicles, pedestrians or cyclists.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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