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1.0                                           Introduction

1.0    Background of the Study

Language variation has remained a prominent theme in sociolinguistic enquiry by virtue of its centrality to the explication of the social context of language use. Since no speech community can be said to be completely homogenous, the fact of language variation remains a glaring reality as exemplified in everyday uses of language in different societies. Firth (1951: 78) had stressed the fact that language must be as varied as the groups who use it and the multiplicity of functions to which it is applied. Similarly, Coates (1990: 24) in delineating the domain of sociolinguistics as the social context of language use, argues that the study of language in its social context means crucially the study of linguistic variation.

Consequently, sociolinguistic studies have been largely characterized by the exploration of the systematic relationship between language and socio-cultural organization of speech communities. The basic assumption behind this is that speakers functioning as members of a particular speech community, and within the ambit of a particular culture, have internalized not only the rules of grammar but also the rules of appropriate speech usage. These rules which are broadly shared by other members of the speech community are applied daily in speech behaviour (Sankoff, 1989).

The language spoken by somebody and his or her identity as a speaker of this language are inseparable. One of the functions of language is to identify people as representatives of groups, communities and cultures in relation to others. The concept of identity helps to describe the way individuals and groups define themselves and are defined by others on the basis of race, ethnicity, religion, language and culture (Deng 1995). As it is commonly recognized, the term identity is mutually constructed and refers to evolving images of self and other (Katzenstein 1996: 59). Therefore, identity is people’s concept of who they are, of what sort of people they are, and how they relate to others (Hogg and Abrams 1988: 2). It is worth mentioning, that the identity is subject to the individual interpretation, expressing the will to become a member of a group. Herrigel (1993: 371) states: “By social identity, I mean the desire for group distinction, dignity, and place within historically specific discourses (or frames of understanding) about the character, structure, and boundaries of the policy and the economy.”

Identity is closely related to language. Language use constructs identity, as everyone uses accent, dialect, and language variation that reveals speaker’s membership in a particular speech community, social class, ethnic and national group. As well, such variations are obvious when the grouping is based on gender, age, or expanding the linguistics focus to include jargons, registers and styles, occupation, club or gang membership, political affiliation, religious confession and so on (Edward 2009: 21). Several researches have been conducted across the world on identification through language in different areas such as information technology (Constable, Simons 2000), speech recognition (Coulthard 1997), text verification (Giguet 1995); similar languages identification (Ljubesic 2007), criminal identification (Singh 2006), and language identification in web (Martins and Silva 2005). The function of language that identifies people as representatives of groups, communities and cultures has been examined in the context of marking the distinction between “Us” and “Others” (Duszak 2002). In African context, the language is often significantly regarded as a marker of national identity (Simpson 2008).

It is against this background that this research work is conducted to examine sociolinguistic analysis of the language of market interaction in Mushin market.

1.2    Statement of Research Problem

A language without a written standard variety is not developed language. If such a language is allowed to remain so far a long time, it may eventually be swallowed up by another language and it may fade away. When a particular language is “dead”, the tradition and integrity of the people fade away too. This is because it is only the written record of a particular language that preserves and empowers that preserves and empowers the language. This fact has made it pertinent to study and carry out research on the varieties of the Oro language in order to give room for standard varieties in the future. This standard variety will be used in writing works and keeping formal records. 

          In the national language policy, the federal government has specified that mother tongue or the or language of the immediate community be used as language of instruction in the first three years of education in the primary schools, (National Language Policy, 1997:3). This cannot be achieved if works is not done on a language in order to produces an acceptable and standardized variety to be used teaching, studying and writing.

These needs have called for an academic study and research on the language market interaction. Few works done are not adequate for the development for the marketing language. Though, there is orthography, one of the major hindrances of the literary development of marketing language is the diverse dialectical variations.  It is against this background that this research work is conducted to examine sociolinguistic analysis of the language of market interaction in Mushin market

1.3    Research Questions

1.           Does marketing language affect dialectical varieties?

2.           What are the socio-linguistics variables responsible for different dialectical variant in the marketing?

3.           What are the factors militating against dialectical unification in language market?

1.4    Objectives of the Study

1.   To examine marketing language affects dialectical varieties.

2.   To examine socio-linguistics variables responsible for different dialectical variant in the marketing.

3.   To examine the factors militating against dialectical unification in language market.

1.6    Significance of the Study

The significance of this study can be viewed from the following perspectives. One main significance of this study is that when completed, it would serve as a bridge for the gap that have been created between where previous works on this subject area stopped and today.

This study is significant in the sense that it’s finding would serve as a base and framework for future researchers to carry out further studies in the field of knowledge under study.

The outcome of this research is hoped to be of immense use to students of linguistians and communications since it contains information on linguistic variations

1.7    Scope and Limitation of the Study

A study of this nature ought to be carried out in all line of business operations in Mushin market. However, given the limitations experienced by researchers all over the world as part of research experience in terms of content coverage, the scope of this study is limited to sociolinguistic analysis of the language interaction in Mushin market

It is inevitable that a survey research of this nature must have some constraints which impact on this study. The study was limited strictly to people of mushin market. Insufficiency in research funding reared its head to perhaps limit the researcher’s efforts and interest during typing, photocopying and binding processes.

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