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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
The process of transferring the immediate discharge of the electrical energy directly to the earth by the help of the low resistance wire. The electrical earthing is done by connecting the non-current carrying part of the equipment or neutral of supply system to the ground.
Mostly, the galvanized iron is used for the earthing. The earthing provides the simple path of the leakage current. The short circuit current of the equipment passes to the earth which has zero potential. Thus, protects the system and equipment from damage.
Types of Electrical Earthing.
The electrical equipment mainly consists of two non-current carrying parts. These parts are neutral of the system or frame of the electrical equipment from the earthing of these two non-current carrying parts of the electrical system earthing can be classified into two types:
i. Neutral Earthing
ii. Equipment Earthing
In neutral earthing, the neutral of the system is directly connected to earth by the help of the GI wire. The neutral earthing is also called the system earthing. Such type of Earthing is mostly provided to the system which has star winding. For example, the neutral earthing is provided in the generator, transformer, motor etc.
Such type of Earthing is provided to the electrical equipment. The non-current carrying part of the equipment like their metallic frame is connected to the earth by the help of the conducting wire. If any fault occurs in the apparatus, the short circuit current to pass the earth by the help of wire. Thus, protect the system from damage.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The purpose of the scale model experiments is the investigation of the variation of the transient resistance of the grounding grids, when the impulse current is injected each time at a different point of the grounding grid. Typically, when a lightning strike, a huge current is transmitted to the system. The same is happen when current fault occur in electrical system of a building. This current have to be channeled to ground to protect that system. However, channeling a huge current require a meticulous and reliable grounding system. That is the reason to why the grounding grid is important. Different configuration of the grid could produce different result. The meshes that tested can give a different results which the best can be design can be determined. Thus, better protection can be chosen and can keep our protected system safely.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
Aim of the work is to provide easy and shortest path to the flow of fault current without exceeding the operation and equipment limit and adversely affecting the continuity of service, it is also to ensure that a person present in the station yard is not exposed to danger of electrical shock.
The objectives of the work is as follows;
i. To understand of requirements, objectives, planning, and properties of earthing system.
ii. To understand basic practical constructional aspects of earthing system.
iii. To install earthing systems for various flours in the Electrical and Electronics building.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Most engineers view earthing mainly as a method to protect equipment from damage or malfunction. However, the most important element is operator safety. Proper earthing is a basic protection against AC line disturbances. This applies whether the source of the disturbance is lightning, power-system switching activities, or faults in the distribution network. Proper earthing is also a key element in preventing radio frequency interference in transmission or computer equipment. Moreover, power quality can be significantly degraded due to improper earthing. Implementing an effective ground network is not an easy task. It requires planning, quality components, and skilled installers. It is not inexpensive. However, proper earthing is an investment that will pay dividends for the life of the facility.
There are several methods of earthing like wire or strip earthing, rod earthing, pipe earthing, plate earthing or earthing through water mains. Most commonly used methods of earthing are pipe earthing and plate earthing. These methods are explained below in details.
1.5.1 Earthing Mat
Earthing mat is made by joining the number of rods through copper conductors. It reduced the overall grounding resistance. Such type of system helps in limiting the ground potential. Earthing mat is mostly used in a placed where the large fault current is to be experienced. While designing an earth mat.
1.5.2 Earthing Electrode
In this type of earthing any wire, rod, pipe, plate or a bundle of conductors, inserted in the ground horizontally or vertically. In distributing systems, the earth electrode may consist of a rod, about 1 meter in length and driven vertically into the ground. In generating substations, grounding mat is used rather than individual rods.
1.5.3 Pipe Earthing
This is the most common and best system of earthing as compared to other systems suitable for the same earth and moisture conditions. In this method the galvanized steel and perforated pipe of approved length and diameter in place upright in a permanently wet soil, as shown below. The size of the pipe depends upon the current to be carried and type of soil.
Normally, the size of the pipe uses for earthing is of diameter 40 mm and 2.5 meters in length for ordinary soil or of greater length in case of dry and rocky soil. The depth at which the pipe must be buried depends on the moistures of the ground.
1.5.4 Plate Earthing
In Plate Earthing an earthing plate either of copper of dimension 60cm×60cm×3m of galvanized iron of dimensions 60 cm× 60 cm×6 mm is buried into the ground with its face vertical at a depth of not less than 3 meters from ground level.
The earth plate is inserted into auxiliary layers of coke and salt for a minimum thickness of 15 cm. The earth wire (GI or copper wire) is tightly bolted to an earth plate with the help of nut or bolt. The copper plate and copper wire are usually not employed for grounding purposes because of their higher cost.
1.5.5 Earthing Through Water Mains
In this type of earthing the GI or copper wire are connected to the water mains with the help of the steel binding wire.
The water pipe is made up of metal, and it is placed below the surface of the ground, i.e. directly connected to earth. The fault current flow through the GI or copper wire is directly get earthed through the water pipe.
1.6 REPORT OUTLINE
In view of this project, the chapter one gives the introduction, the chapter two talks about the literature reviews, while chapter three highlighted the construction and packaging of the project, also chapter four outline the testing and result obtained and chapter five gives the conclusion, recommendation and references of the project.
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