provision of easy and shortest path to the flow of fault current without exceeding the operation and equipment limit

provision of easy and shortest path to the flow of fault current without exceeding the operation and equipment limit

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT

            The process of transferring the immediate discharge of the electrical energy directly to      the earth by the help of the low resistance wire. The electrical earthing is done by           connecting the non-current carrying part of the equipment or neutral of supply system to             the ground.

            Mostly, the galvanized iron is used for the earthing. The earthing provides the simple         path of the leakage current. The short circuit current of the equipment passes to the earth         which has zero potential. Thus, protects the system and equipment from damage.

            Types of Electrical Earthing.

            The electrical equipment mainly consists of two non-current carrying parts. These parts      are neutral of the system or frame of the electrical equipment from the earthing of these   two non-current carrying parts of the electrical system earthing can be classified into two        types:

            i.          Neutral Earthing

            ii.         Equipment Earthing

            NEUTRAL EARTHING

            In neutral earthing, the neutral of the system is directly connected to earth by the help of the GI wire. The neutral earthing is also called the system earthing. Such type of Earthing          is mostly provided to the system which has star winding. For example, the neutral      earthing is provided in the generator, transformer, motor etc.

            EQUIPMENT EARTHING

            Such type of Earthing is provided to the electrical equipment. The non-current carrying     part of the equipment like their metallic frame is connected to the earth by the help of the       conducting wire. If any fault occurs in the apparatus, the short circuit current to pass the      earth by the help of wire. Thus, protect the system from damage.

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

            The purpose of the scale model experiments is the investigation of the variation of the       transient resistance of the grounding grids, when the impulse current is injected each time    at a different point of the grounding grid. Typically, when a lightning strike, a huge    current is transmitted to the system. The same is happen when current fault occur in    electrical system of a building. This current have to be channeled to ground to protect that             system. However, channeling a huge current require a meticulous and reliable grounding        system. That is the reason to why the grounding grid is important. Different configuration             of the grid could produce different result. The meshes that tested can give a different       results which the best can be design can be determined. Thus, better protection can be     chosen and can keep our protected system safely.

1.3       AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

            Aim of the work is to provide easy and shortest path to the flow of fault current without exceeding the operation and equipment limit and adversely affecting the continuity of            service, it is also to ensure that a person present in the station yard is not exposed to     danger of electrical shock.

            The objectives of the work is as follows;

            i.          To understand of requirements, objectives, planning, and properties of earthing                              system.

            ii.         To understand basic practical constructional aspects of earthing system.

            iii.        To install earthing systems for various flours in the Electrical and Electronics                                  building.

1.4       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

            Most engineers view earthing mainly as a method to protect equipment from damage or    malfunction. However, the most important element is operator safety. Proper earthing is a          basic protection against AC line disturbances. This applies whether the source of the       disturbance is lightning, power-system switching activities, or faults in the distribution             network. Proper earthing is also a key element in preventing radio frequency interference            in transmission or computer equipment. Moreover, power quality can be significantly    degraded due to improper earthing.  Implementing an effective ground network is not an easy task. It requires planning, quality components, and skilled installers. It is not          inexpensive. However, proper earthing is an investment that will pay dividends for the       life of the facility.

1.5       METHODOLOGY

            There are several methods of earthing like wire or strip earthing, rod earthing, pipe             earthing, plate earthing or earthing through water mains. Most commonly used methods       of earthing are pipe earthing and plate earthing. These methods are explained below in    details.

            1.5.1    Earthing Mat

            Earthing mat is made by joining the number of rods through copper conductors. It             reduced the overall grounding resistance. Such type of system helps in limiting the        ground potential. Earthing mat is mostly used in a placed where the large fault current is         to be experienced. While designing an earth mat.

            1.5.2    Earthing Electrode

            In this type of earthing any wire, rod, pipe, plate or a bundle of conductors, inserted in the             ground horizontally or vertically. In distributing systems, the earth electrode may consist   of a rod, about 1 meter in length and driven vertically into the ground. In generating            substations, grounding mat is used rather than individual rods.

            1.5.3    Pipe Earthing

            This is the most common and best system of earthing as compared to other systems           suitable for the same earth and moisture conditions. In this method the galvanized steel            and perforated pipe of approved length and diameter in place upright in a permanently       wet soil, as shown below. The size of the pipe depends upon the current to be carried and        type of soil.

            Normally, the size of the pipe uses for earthing is of diameter 40 mm and 2.5 meters in      length for ordinary soil or of greater length in case of dry and rocky soil. The depth at            which the pipe must be buried depends on the moistures of the ground.

            1.5.4    Plate Earthing

            In Plate Earthing an earthing plate either of copper of dimension 60cm×60cm×3m of         galvanized iron of dimensions 60 cm× 60 cm×6 mm is buried into the ground with its face vertical at a depth of not less than 3 meters from ground level.

            The earth plate is inserted into auxiliary layers of coke and salt for a minimum thickness    of 15 cm. The earth wire (GI or copper wire) is tightly bolted to an earth plate with the          help of nut or bolt. The copper plate and copper wire are usually not employed for   grounding purposes because of their higher cost.

            1.5.5    Earthing Through Water Mains

            In this type of earthing the GI or copper wire are connected to the water mains with the    help of the steel binding wire.

            The water pipe is made up of metal, and it is placed below the surface of the ground, i.e.   directly connected to earth. The fault current flow through the GI or copper wire is             directly get earthed through the water pipe.

1.6       REPORT OUTLINE

            In view of this project, the chapter one gives the introduction, the chapter two talks about             the literature reviews, while chapter three highlighted the construction and packaging of         the project, also chapter four outline the testing and result obtained and chapter five gives   the conclusion, recommendation and references of the project.


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