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CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Light is crucial in every day activity for the continuity of normal plant life to the benefit of human beings, birds, and insects. Nothing seems to be able to exist without the availability of light.

Even the human eye requires some amount of light to function well (Blutit, 2010). Light from the sun is natural and it is sunlight. This can serve as a source of solar power which is converted to electric power for both household and industrial utilization.

Solar power is the generation of electricity from sunlight. Solar security lights are beneficial, in the sense that, the day to day running and maintenances cost is reduced. Security lights also make use of power generated by the utility company (i.e Power Holding Company Of Nigeria PHCN). It  is interesting that lead acid battery and photovoltaic cells of solar modules can be used as the power source for the security lighting system as well. And with the use of a light dependent resistor (LDR), automatic control can be induced in the equipment. Solar powered security lights have been available for quite a time now; having originally been designed for use in less developed or isolated areas.

The most recent developments with regards to the technology, behind solar security lighting have been in connection with LEDs, firstly, these consumes less power than the other type of conventional sodium lamp.

In addition, they have a much longer working life, better color definition and require smaller solar components than sodium lamps. It can be appreciated, therefore, that in order for solar security light technology to be efficient and cost effective meticulous assessment has to be carried out, paying the outmost regards to information concerning solar radiation, the amount of sunshine present and general climatic conditions in the relevant areas.

This project is about the generation of sustainable electric power in order to power a security light, with the aid of solar system. This is easy to country particularly in the tropical zone where sunshine is abundant.

1.1     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The existing solar street light was designed to provide 12hrs of lighting at night between 6pm and 6am, and switch off during the day, but it was in-efficient in operation as it switch-on at 6:30pm and switch-off at 12 mid night.

1.2.1      AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The project is aimed at ensuring that the existing solar street light is working efficiently according to design specifications.

1.2.1  The main objective of this project is to provide alternative power to the area that would be thrown into darkness when power fails as is frequently the case nowadays.

1.2.2  To minimize or completely eliminate the threat to insecurity by hoodlums  who operate under the darkness.

1.3     SCOPE OF WORK/LIMITATION

The research will monitor and evaluate the performance of an existing solar street light and effect maintenances by replacing missing or damaged parts and ensure that the system works efficiently according to design specifications to be able to work throughout the night between 6pm and 6am nightly.

1.4     RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE

The research will encourage the adoption of efficient and reliable, renewable energy for street lighting at night thereby promoting safer, neater and clearer environment.

1.5     CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE

This research enhances practical and theoretical knowledge of the design, installation and operational principles of solar street light as a visible sustainable energy source.


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