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1.1       Background of the Study

Educational Technology is a systematic and organized process of applying modern technology to improve the quality of education (efficiency, optimal, true, etc.). It is a systematic way of conceptualizing the execution and evaluation of the educational process, i. e. learning and teaching and help with the application of modern educational teaching techniques. It includes instructional materials, methods and organization of work and relationships, i.e. the behavior of all participants in the educational process. The term “teaching resources” is commonly used, although they are not synonymous (Pedagoški leksikon, 1996). The word technology is derived from the Greek word “techno” which means the willingness, skills, knowledge of the way, rule, skill, tools and “logos” which means science, word, learning, mental state. There is no single term for Educational Technology. Different countries use different terms and synonyms as Educational Technology, educational equipment, AV resources, the technology of teaching...
Terminological differences mostly occur on the grounds of the approach to the technical characteristics and the use of modern appliances, and not their actual application in teaching i.e. their actual pedagogical application. For this reason, there are different opinions among teachers in the field of social and technical sciences. Therefore, the application of Educational Technology requires knowledge from several areas: pedagogy, psychology, didactics, computer sciences, informatics... Because of this diversity, there are also different perceptions of Educational Technology, where every author defines the concept of Educational Technology, according to their needs. Educational Technology is still not being applied sufficiently, mostly for reasons of lack of school equipment necessary resources and insufficient qualification of teachers for the implementation of these funds.       
Educational Technology has three domains of use:

  • Technology as a tutor (computer gives instructions and guides the user),
  • Technology as a teaching tool and
  • Technology as a learning tool.

Technology in Education

Technology is the collection of techniques, skills, methods and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, etc. or it can be embedded in machines, computers, devices and factories, which can be operated by individuals without detailed knowledge of the workings of such things.

The human species' use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the later Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. The steady progress of military technology has brought weapons of ever-increasing destructive power, from clubs to nuclear weapons.

Technology has many effects. It has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of Earth's environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.

There are three main categories of technology that is used in Education (Wikipedia, 2016) to support student learning. They include

§  Mainstream technology

§  Instructional technology

§  Assistive technology

Mainstream Technology – Mainstream technology can be described as consumer products that can be purchased by typical consumers. Example of mainstream technology products include: laptops running Windows or Mac operating systems, iPads, mp3 players, digital cameras and Smart phones.

Instructional Technology – Instructional technology (also referred to as educational technology) refers to technology that facilitates student attainment of learning outcomes through multimedia, online tools, and emerging technologies. For example, many BC school districts subscribe to online programs such as ‘River Deep’ by Houghton Mifflin. The use of interactive white boards (e.g. SMART Board) and document cameras help students who require visual supports in the classroom and encourages student engagement with learning activities. The purpose of instructional technology is to facilitate learning and improve student achievement.

Assistive Technology (AT) – Assistive technology is a broad field that focuses on facilitating physical or cognitive access to “some thing” for people with disabilities. AT devices range from low-tech battery operated devices to high tech complex computers. Assistive technology solutions help students to participate, communicate and learn in classrooms. AT is customizable to suit the needs of the user. Example assistive technology include: Braille notetaker with refreshable Braille display, dynamic display communication device, switch-activated toy, computer with Kurzweil 3000 (a software program that helps students struggling with reading and writing).

The difference between assistive technology and instructional technology software programs is instructional technology includes content that addresses specific areas of the curriculum and is used to remediate or review concepts introduced in the classroom. Assistive technology software programs may come with sample files with content but the content is fully customizable and allows authoring to generate activities or files that address the specific needs of the student.  Assistive technology software programs often address physical access needs for the user and have built in alternative physical access options.

Benefits of Technology in Education

Promotes independent learning in students 
The internet is a treasure trove of information. Practically anything you need to know can be found online. Although there is a question of the credibility of the source and the data provided, it can still serve as an educational resource for students. Even without assistance from parents and teachers, students can just look up their lessons online.

Unlike regular textbooks, electronic books and web-based content are updated in real time, feeding students with the most current information they can get their hands on, helping them become more knowledgeable even outside the classroom setting.

Prepares students for the future           
From the way technological advancements are going, it is obvious that the future will be digital and technology-focused. If students are well-versed on using technology to collaborate and communicate as early as now, they will not have trouble fitting in, competing and finding jobs in the future. Being familiar with using at least one form of technology at an early age will help them become comfortable using it, and eventually develop other skills necessary to handle other innovative devices and processes.

Has the potential to lower textbook and tuition prices       
With resources more accessible and in great abundance, the cost of textbooks is likely to decrease. It is also possible that students may no longer need to buy a textbook, if it is converted into digital format. The actual books can stay in the classroom, while the content is saved on a student’s computer.

Tuition will also decrease when learning is done online, rather than inside the classroom. By taking out the factors that contribute to a higher tuition fee, such as utility bills and transportation allowance of teachers, the overall cost of education will be lower.

Allows teachers to create an exciting way to educate students  
Gone are the days when the only tools for teaching are limited to books, a blackboard or whiteboard, and a chalk or markers. With technology integrated to education, teachers can now incorporate images, videos and other graphics when delivering lessons. Specific websites, apps and programs will also enable teachers to vary how they provide instructions. This creates an exciting learning environment and promotes interest in education in general.

Other tools available for teachers include Smart Boards (interactive whiteboards), email Skype, and PowerPoint.

Encourages development of new teaching methods         
Rather than spend an hour or so talking while the students listen, or have them read an entire chapter in silence, teachers and professors now have the option to use advanced teaching methods, such as podcasts, blogs and social media. When working with a particular group or one-on-one, teachers can take advantage of web conferencing technologies other online communication tools.

Technology also presents universal tools that enable teachers to educate all types of students, including those who are struggling or have special needs. These include voice recognition, text-to-speech converter, translator, volume control, word prediction software and other assistive technologies.

Disadvantages of Technology in Education

Results in a lack of interest in studying          
Because everything is now accessible online or through data saved in a computer or mobile devices, students are likely to develop poor studying habits and a lazy attitude towards education. Some of them may even think they can skip school because they can find answers and lessons online. Who needs teachers when you have internet and Google, right?

This can also lead to students forgetting the basics of studying. They would rather rely on computers and the internet, instead of their books and the input from their teachers. Most of them will misspell words because they often use spell checkers. Rather than solve mathematical equations the traditional way, they would seek assistance from computers or look for the answers directly through search engines. When it is time to take the tests in the classroom and without any form of technology, students are likely to fail.

Makes students vulnerable to potential pitfalls        
While computers prove to be an invaluable educational tool, it can also be a source of problems. This is especially true for students who lack the skills needed to maximize a device’s functionalities. Technical problems and computer malfunctions can cause loss of assignments and other materials, resulting in high levels of stress that students would rather not experience. Difference in internet speeds and a device’s capabilities can also lead to certain difficulties that will de-motivate students. Add to this other things that they will discover online, which are completely unrelated to school and education, and they will be distracted to no end.

Negative views on technology  
Consumerism has taught us that technologies, from computers to mobile devices, are widely viewed as tools to entertain rather than educate. Textbooks, on the other hand, are seen as tools for learning. So, between a tablet and a textbook, students are likely to gravitate towards learning when reading a book, while they are likely to use a tablet to play games or spend time on social media.

Raise instructional challenges  
For professors and teachers to stay abreast with technology, they may need to be retrained. Those who have been teaching all their lives using traditional methods may not be very susceptible to the changes being applied. They may even see it as a threat to their job security and shun technology altogether. In fact, a majority of teachers believe that constant use of digital technology is affecting a student’s attention span and his ability to persevere when a challenging task is thrown his way. Although such belief is subjective, scholars, experts and teachers all agree that technology has changed the way students learn.

Can diminish overall value of in-person education 
Although research on online learning did not establish a direct link to how personal interaction affects a student’s performance, data gathered did show that those who enrolled in online courses have higher chances of failing, dropping out of classes, and are less likely to benefit from them. This may have something to do with the fact that lessons delivered online or through digital resources lack the face-to-face interaction between teacher and student that provides a more personal experience.

Depending on the use and benefits, the research by Lowther et al., (2012) suggests that education technology has not yet taken its place, in spite of their recommendations. This is probably the reason for the statute of the social company. Leu et al., (2009) state that children in poorer areas very rarely use the Internet as a learning tool. Today’s children use modern technical equipment from an early age (Gutnik et al., 2011; Rideout 2011) so that their coming in with new educational technologies at school will not be a problem. In studies (Greenhow et al., 2009), we can find out that more students use modern technical equipment. Serious research on the influence of education technology on cognitive processes was conducted by Kaufman, 2004; Lee et al., (2008)
When using Educational Technology we should be primarily focused on the educational value of the tools and applications we use, how adequate they are in the acquisition of knowledge, whether there is an interaction between users and tools, and if we have positive effects in using them. A number of authors (Clements and Sarama, 2003; Glaubke 2007; Dynarski et al. 2007)           suggest that we should focus on five areas of software programs that have the potential to strongly influence children’s learning experience:

  1. The educational value of the program,
  2. Its ability to engage children in learning,
  3. Ease of use,
  4. Interactivity between the child and programs,
  5. The possibility that a software program monitors the progress of the child

Earlier, technology in education was a debatable topic amongst the society. Everyone had their own views on modernizing education and making it technology aided. There were a huge number of positives and negatives to education technology. But, gradually as technology was embraced by the educational institutes, they realized the importance of technology in education. Its positives outnumbered the negatives and now, with technology, education has taken a whole new meaning that it leaves us with no doubt that our educational system has been transformed owing to the ever-advancing technology. Technology and education are a great combination if used together with a right reason and vision.

With technology, educators, students and parents have a variety of learning tools at their fingertips. Here are some of the ways in which technology improves education over time:

  • Teachers can collaborate to share their ideas and resources online: They can communicate with others across the world in an instant, meet the shortcomings of their work, refine it and provide their students with the best. This approach definitely enhances the practice of teaching.
  • Students can develop valuable research skills at a young age: Technology gives students immediate access to an abundance of quality information which leads to learning at much quicker rates than before.
  • Students and teachers have access to an expanse of material: There are plenty of resourceful, credible websites available on the Internet that both teachers and students can utilize. The Internet also provides a variety of knowledge and doesn’t limit students to one person’s opinion.
  • Online learning is now an equally credible option: Face-to-face interaction is huge, especially in the younger years, but some students work better when they can go at their own pace. Online education is now accredited and has changed the way we view education.

1.2       Statement of Problems

Since computers are still not widely used in many schools, the teaching process is dominated by traditional methods. It is dominated by the frontal form of work where the teacher had enough interaction with students. Failure to thrive at their own pace and insufficient activity of students was one of the drawbacks of this type of learning. In class, we have children who are not uniform in knowledge and never pay enough attention to those who are not sufficiently mastered the material and those who are above their average. This difference is often hampered by teacher assessment work and how to transfer knowledge to a group of children with different knowledge. The teacher chooses to keep average to good teaching where children with insufficient knowledge would not get the necessary knowledge. The children with insufficient knowledge can progress smoothly without unpleasant feeling of their ignorance, no frustration, and humiliation while for the most advanced children teaching will be boring.
With the development of information and communication technology, especially computers, a number of researchers (Morrison et al., 2010) were trying to see the benefits and the effect of their use compared to older traditional learning. For many years, we tried to give answers to the question of advantages and disadvantages between traditional and modern teaching where the prevailing Educational Technology.

It is in light of this, that this study investigate the utilization of technology use in education in secondary schools in kaduna metropolis.

1.3       Objective of the study

This study is designed investigate the utilization of technology use in education in secondary schools in kaduna metropolis. Specifically the study focuses on;

1.    Finding out the types of technology resources used for teaching in secondary schools in kaduna metropolis.

2.    To determine the impact of technology resources in teaching in secondary schools in kaduna metropolis.

3.    To identify the problems faced by teachers in the use of technology material in teaching in secondary schools in kaduna metropolis.

4.    To check the availability of  technology materials in secondary schools in kaduna metropolis.

1.4       Significance of the Study

This study is immense benefit to students, teachers, school authorities and state ministries of education and federal ministry of education. Specifically the study will be of immense benefit because it will;

-          Enhance the learning processes of students and there by improve on their overall academic performance since it will increase the motivation of students, add clarity to the topic taught and make learning more interesting.

-          Finding from the study will help to sensitize teachers of their important roles in promoting the use of Educational Technology resources in teaching. This is because it will provide basis for them to understand the need for their complimentary role in encouraging and supporting the use of video instructional strategy.

-          The finding will further help to reveal and create awareness among the schools authorities of the importance of using educational strategy in teaching Technical subjects. The study will go far to help the government to prepare a better curriculum which emphasize more practical in line with the use of video instructional strategy in carrying out this job.

1.5       Research Questions

1.    What are the types of technology resources used for teaching in secondary schools in kaduna metropolis.

2.    What is the impact of technology resources in teaching in secondary schools in kaduna metropolis.

3.    What are the problems faced by teachers in the use of technology material in teaching in secondary schools in kaduna metropolis.

4.    How available are technology materials in secondary schools in kaduna metropolis.

1.6       Scope/Limitation of the Study

This study will aim at assessing the utilization of technology use in education in secondary schools in kaduna metropolis. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede    the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).       
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

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