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Title page                                                                                         i

Approval page                                                                                           ii

Certification                                                                                      iii

Dedication                                                                                         iv

Acknowledgement                                                                             v

Table of content                                                                                vi

List of Tables                                                                                    viii 

Abstract                                                                                            ix


Background of the study                                                                   1

Statement f the Problem                                                                    3

Purpose of the Study                                                                        4

Significance of the Study                                                                  5

Research Questions                                                                           5

Scope of the Study                                                                            5


Conceptual Framework                                                                    6

Advent of educational technology in distance learning.                    9

Utilization of educational technology in teaching and learning.        14

Benefits of educational technology to both the students

and teachers                                                                                      19

Accessibility of the networking system                                            22

Summary of review of related literature                                           25


Design of the study                                                                           27

Area of the Study                                                                                       27

Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                28

Instrument for data collection                                                           28

Validity of the Instrument                                                                          28

Reliability of the Instrument                                                             29

Method of Data collection                                                                 29

Method for data Analysis                                                                 29


Summary of Findings                                                                       30

Research question 1                                                                                    30

Research question 2                                                                          31

Research question 3                                                                          32

Research question 4                                                                          33                                                                            


Re-statement of the Problem                                                                      34

Summary of Procedure                                                                               34

Major Findings                                                                                           35

Discussion of Findings                                                                      36

Implications of the study                                                                  42

Conclusion                                                                                                 42

Recommendations of the study                                                                  43

Suggestions for further studies                                                         44

Reference                                                                                                    45

Appendix                                                                                                   46


Table 1: mean response of the most used technology in teaching

and learning                                                                                      30

Table 2: mean response of the resources that are more adequately

accessible to both teachers and students                                           31     

Table 3: mean response of how these technologies can be of benefit

to both the teachers and students                                                      32     

Table 4: mean response of the accessibility of the networking

system used                                                                                                33


This study sought to assess the utilization of educational technology in distance learning amongst the students of the national open university of Nigeria (NOUN) Kaduna study centre, Kaduna state. The specific purposes of the study were to determine the most used technology in teaching and learning, determine the resources that are more adequately accessible to both the teachers and students, establish the benefits of these technologies to the teachers and students and establish the accessibility of the networking system. Four research questions were design and used to guide this study. The population of the study is 75 since the population was manageable there was no need for sampling. The study adopted descriptive survey research design and the area of study is National Open University, Kaduna Study Center. The test retest method was used to establish the reliability of the instrument and the Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient was used to calculate the reliability coefficient. Mean statistics was employed to analyze the data. The summary of the findings for this study revealed that Personal Computer, Audio CD/ Cassette, and Video equipment including software are technological resources that are more adequately accessible for disseminating of information, Educational technology saves time, Gives room for immediate feedback, Improve interaction between learners and teachers and It also discovered that there is a problem with the accessibility of networking system. Based on the findings, recommendations were made which include that Government and relevant stakeholders should support and encourage the use of computer in teaching and learning as it has a positive impact in teaching, Computers should be provided to the students since it increases their learning abilities among others.



Background of the study

Improving the quality of education through diversification of contents, methods and promoting experimentation, innovation, the diffusion and sharing of information and best practices as well as policy dialogue are UNESCO’s strategic objectives in education UNESCO (2002).

According to Kahn, (2008) education is the knowledge of putting one’s potentials to maximum. It also helps man to think and make meaningful decision. Hence, man training is only complete when he is educated because; it makes man a right thinker. Unless the citizenry of any nation is properly educated, they remain unable to receive information from the outside world, with which to acquaint them with the knowledge of the past and receive necessary information about the present.

Education maybe formal, informal or non formal. While formal education is a classroom based provided by trained teachers with a variety of specialized programmes and institutions for full time technical and professional training.

Informal education is a general term for education outside of a standard school setting. It is the wise, respectful and spontaneous process of cultivating learning. It works through conversation, exploration and enlargement of experience. It happens in after- school programmes, community- based organizations, museums, libraries or at home.

Non- formal education is an organized activity to acknowledging the importance of education, learning and training which takes place outside established educational institution. All the types education are required in serving the purpose of eradicating illiteracy whether conducted in a conventional education system or a non- conventional education system. Hence, whether in conventional or non- conventional institutions, teachers need communication technologies to an extent in delivering their lectures to students. In this case however, factors like space, time, place and distance are no longer barriers to any interested learner. Hence, the emergence and re-amplification of the terms “autonomous learning”, “distance learning” or “open learning”. To be autonomous means to be self governed and to be acting independently or having the freedom to do so. Hence, an autonomous learner is one who controls his or her learning, Robert(2005). It means the learners have a reasonable responsibility for planning and organizing their learning.

Distance learning on the other hand is a form of learning that is done by student at a distance from the tutor and the classroom through the reading of books at home or any place of convenience. There is more of distance teaching today than in the past (Robert, pg.8), this is because, the development of educational technologies makes it less important to be together all the time.

The conventional education is teaching- intensive, while the application of technologies in education can lead to economy of scale, and most education process is age related and favours more of the young, but for the new technology they provides learning opportunities for all ages.

Johnson, (2008) states that “the rapid development of technologies in information dissemination has continued to have a major influence in the livelihood of people across the world, it has therefore, turned the world to a global village, and even more, a living room.

Hence, the quest to finding out the extent of utilization of these technologies amongst not only the teachers of the National Open University of Nigeria, Kaduna Study Center, but their students as well, as it applies to distance learning.

Statement f the Problem

The Open University in Britain and the University of British Columbia began a revolution of using the internet to deliver learning making heavy use of web-based training and online discussion between students. Practitioners such as Harasim (1995) put heavy emphasis on the use of learning network.

 With the advent of World Wide Web in the 1990s, teachers embarked on the method using emerging technologies to employ multi-object oriented sites, which are text-based, online virtual reality systems, to create course websites along with simple sets of instructions for its students.

By 1994, the first online high school had been found. Educators could simply record lessons live and upload them on website page, there are currently wide varieties of online education that are reachable for colleges and university students that enrolled in online and distance learning programmes. This form of high learning allowed for greater flexibility by easing the communication between teachers and students, now teachers receive quick lecture feedback from their students.

Students growing up in this digital age have extensive exposure to a variety of media used in distance learning such as educational broadcast television, EDUSAT (educational satellite), E-mail (electronic mail),video cassette, videoconferencing/interactive video,  the internet, teleconferencing, CD-ROM/ audio cassette, etc.

With the advent of this study system in Nigeria, and availability of the internet services, the National Open University students can adequately receive lectures from any distance they find themselves. However, this cannot be achieved without the use of such technologies mentioned above.

Purpose of the Study

This study investigated the extent of the utilization of educational technologies in the teaching and learning in the National Open University of Nigeria, Kaduna study centre, Kaduna.

Specifically, the study:

1.     Determined the most used technology in teaching and learning.

2.     Determined the resources that are more adequately accessible to both the teachers and students.

3.     Established the benefits of these technologies to the teachers and students.

4.     Established the accessibility of the networking system.

Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will be of immense benefit to the National Open University of Nigeria, Kaduna study centre, as it will assist them  in the proper dissemination of information, using the most common and adequate medium amongst the technologies to their students. The findings of this study will also be of benefit to students that undertake to study programmes online by intimating them on the various technologies, thereby giving those options to select which one could be the best for their usage.

Research Questions

For the purpose of this study to achieve the stated objective, the following research questions were answered;

1.     How can the most used technology in teaching and learning be determined?

2.     What are the resources that are more adequately accessible to both teachers and students?

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