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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is one of the several educational technologies which came up after the industrial revolution. According to Jimba (1998) “At the end of the 2oth century, a new revolution has just began to shape the context of human civilization, it is called the result of the convergence between Information and Communication Technology. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are of various dimensions, ranging from the traditional black board and instrumental media to computer technology. The latter computer technology is what has broadened up the scope of ICT. Any discussion about the use of computer system in the schools is built upon understanding of the link between schools, learning and computer technology.
Information and communication technology has got input on the teachers and pedagogy, teachers are key component in the learning environment and therefore the impact of ICT on the teachers and the strategies they employ to facilitate the learning environment are critical. They sometimes appears to be an assumption that using ICT to support teaching and learning requires change for all the teachers, whereas clearly same teachers (including textbook writes) have been creating learning environment for years without ICT. However, these teachers tend to use ICT, because they readily perceive that in doing so they will provide even better learning environment better (1999).
Information and communication technology (ICT) is the knowledge and understanding of computer combined with the ability to use them effectively. It is seem as a system of data collection. It is the ability of telling the computer to do what you want it to do. On a least specialized level, information and communication technology (ICT) involves knowing how to turn on computer, start and stop simple application programmes, save and print information.
Information and communication technology is not limited to the acquisition of knowledge alone; it also presupposes personnel’s, practical hands on experience. It is generally used as a system in accomplishing task, such as electronic communications under the control of a set of instructions called programme. Professionally it can be conceived as a tool, throughout the world, many countries have introduced information and communication technology (ICT) into their educational system via, different courses of action, their uses is also underlined as a necessity for improving the quality in the teaching and learning process.
The use of ICT in the teaching and learning process is a relevant and functional way of providing education to the learners in order to assist them to imbibe the required capacity for the world of work, very few jobs today do not require the use of skill in technology, collaboration and team work all of which can be required through teaching with ICT. This ICT is fundamentally changing the way we live, learn and work.
Aladej Sana (2009): observes, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has transformed the means by which we inform ourselves, remain up to date with world events and areas of personal interest and for further learning, for many books and journals are no longer the first or primary source of information for learning we now regularly rely on images, video, animation and sound to acquire information and to learn, increased and improved access to the internet has accelerated this phenomenon.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) usage is an important indication of the teacher’s preparedness to carry out the obligation of daily lessons. In fact Woodrow (1992) assents that any successful transformation in education practices required the development of positive user attitude toward new technology.
The development of teacher’s positive attitude toward ICT is a very significant factor not only for increasing integration but also for avoiding teacher’s resistance to ICT usage Wasson (1998). The use of Information and Communication Technology can help revitalize teachers and students perception, this can help to improve and develop the quality of education by providing curricular support in different and difficult subject areas. To achieve objective, teachers need to be involved in a collaborative projects and development of intervention strategies, which would include teaching partnerships with ICT as a tool. Teachers attitude are major prediction of the use of new technology instructional settings. Teacher’s attitude toward ICT shapes not only their own ICT experience, but shape also the experience of the students they teach. According to Zhao and Ziko (2001), three conditions are necessary for teachers to introduce ICT into their classroom, they include:
1. Teachers should believe in the effectiveness of technology
2. Teacher’s should believe that the use of technology will not course any disturbance and
3. Teachers should believe they have control, over technology.
The impact of ICT on pedagogy can be summarized into the following
1. More learner centered
2. More active learning
3. Based on greater accesses to information
4. More co-operative and collaboration.
The role of teachers has been influenced by Information and Communication Technology. Miller and Olson (1994) argued that an important reason why computer have not altered the curriculum in the manner predicted by some educators is in the influence of traditional teaching method and your outline of practice teachers. Although critics raised numerous questions concerning the unrealized potentials of computer, few looked at how traditional classroom practice affects it usage. While the role of teachers will continue to be critical, the composition of the role is likely to be altered and require a greater range of skills and understanding for example, high level of access to computer to support learning tends to encourage teachers to use more co-operative group work and less teacher stand up lecturing, Schater (1999), they are less likely to take on the role of content expert where they will increase co-operate with other teacher. Gregoine 1996).
Without a concrete understanding of the basic concept of communication, ICT will be of little importance. The basic concepts of communication are sending, encoding, massage receiver, decoding noise and feedback. The sender is the initiate of the message and usually it is initiated in response to outside stimulus, these messages must be encoded so that the receiver can decode the information in an environment with little or on noise. ICT can be applied appropriately in teaching and learning process by ensuring that noise is minimize and there is adequate feedback as responses from the students to teacher.
The evidence from literature shows that teacher’s pedagogies and pedagogical reasoning influences the use of ICT and students attainment. Teachers subject knowledge and the way ICT is used in the lesson is influenced by the teachers’ knowledge of the subject matter and how ICT resources that related to a particular topic, while other uses ICT to present the students work in an innovative way without any direct application to the topic. This evidence shows that when teachers use the knowledge of both the subject and the way students understand the subject; their use of ICT has a more direct effect on their attainment. The effect of the attainment is greater when students are challenged to think and to question their own understanding either through students using topic focused software on their own in pains on through a whole class presentation.
Beita (2002) was of the view that, it is not yet dear from researchers whether this result in technology is being used as a servant to reinforce existing teaching approaches on as a partner to change the way teachers and students interact with each other and with the task to be performed. Teachers need extensive knowledge of ICT to be able to select the most appropriate resources and how to in cooperate the use of ICT into their lesson.
Researchers and academicians conceptualization of pedagogy has change with recent development, in our understanding of cognition and Meta cognition Watkins and Mortimore (1997), many writers have also suggested that developments in ICT provide very different learning opportunities and a need to design a new integrated pedagogy has been identified (Cornu 1995) for example Mdouglitin and Oliver (1999) defined pedagogical roles for teachers in a technological supported classroom as including setting joint task, promoting student self-management, supporting Meta-cognitive, fostering multiple perspective and seat folding learning. As assumption here is that the use of ICT is changing the pedagogical roles of teachers and compelling rationale for using ICT in school is, it’s potential to act as a catalyst in transforming the teaching and learning process. The process described above will be necessary but the decision and outcomes from these processes may be different as teacher’s knowledge, beliefs and value change in line with attendances provides by new technologies. A dynamic model for such a transforming pedagogy for ICT was derived from the palm project (Samekh and Davies 1991). The authors identified pedagogical change as the following types of progressive
1. Change from a view of teaching and learning as discrete, complementary activities to an understanding that teaching and learning are independent aspect of a single activity.
2. Change from a sequential to an organic structuring of learning experience from individualized communicative learning, from a view of the teachers roles as an organizer of learning activities to one as a shape of quality learning experience.
3. Change from a pre-occupation with fitting teaching a group of knowledge that teaching need to be suited to individuals.
4. Change from a view of the learning context as confined to the classroom and controlled by the teacher to one of learning context as a supportive interactive and whole school culture.
5. Change from a view of technology as either a tutor or a tool to one where it is part of a complex of interactions with learners sometimes providing ideas, sometimes providing resources for acquire and sometime supporting creativity.
Another report by Ewoma (2000) revealed that ICT made a relatively modest contribution to students overall achievement in computer mainly because, in most situations, computer based work was not sustained beyond a single lesson. The impact on standards was more significant where students had regular access to relevant hardware. When student used ICT well, there was a clean improvement in the presentation of their work in the range of information they had to draw on in their capacity to enter imaginatively into others situation (such as through virtual towns or reading accounts of people personal dilemmas) and in their understanding and analysis of key concepts.
Considering the view above this study is designed to examine the perception of teachers on the use of ICT in the teaching and learning of computer in senior secondary schools.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE STUDY
Presently, information and communication technology (ICT) is the order of the day in the daily management of most establishments and institutions. This is as a result of the general need to improve on communication, which is a vital aspect of an institution. The junior secondary schools and the higher institution are not left out in this race for information and communication technology. This research is focused on teacher’s perception on the use of information and communication technology in the teaching and learning of computer in the senior secondary schools.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
i. The purpose of this research study is to find out the perception of secondary school science teachers on the use of information communication technology (ICT) for communication in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State.
ii. To examine the benefits of information and communication (ICT) toscience teachers and the students in secondary schools.
iii. Examine the factors that hinder the use of information and communication technology in secondary schools.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research question will help guide the study. The research study mainly focused on the following question:
1. Does the perception of ICT differ between Science and Artsteachers?
2. Does the perception of ICT differ among teachers based on experience?
3. Does the perception of ICT differ among teachers with different educational qualifications?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research project investigates teacher’s perception on the use of information and communication technology in the teaching and learning of computers in the senior secondary schools in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State. It is the belief of the researcher that the outcome of this study will help the teachers in secondary schools to develop positive attitude toward the use of ICT in teaching and also this study will bring to lime light the diverse benefits of using information and communication technology (ICT) in secondary schools. This study will be appropriate for secondary schools teachers and it is also believe as a recipe for policy making in reviewing existing rules guiding the implementation of ICT in the senior secondary school.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research investigates the perception of secondary school science teachers on the use of information communication technology (ICT) for communication in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State. This study covers both public and private schools.In the cause of the study, the researcher encounters some limitations which limited the scope of the study;
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
Inadequate Materials: Scarcity of material is also another hindrance. The researcher finds it difficult to long hands in several required material which could contribute immensely to the success of this research work.
Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Perception: Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Science teachers: school teachers that specialize in teaching science subject such as; math, physics, chemistry etc.
ICT literacy: Literacy with Information and Communication Technology (LwICT) means thinking critically and creatively, about information and about communication, as citizens of the global community, while using ICT safely, responsibly and ethically.
Information literacy: The United States National Forum on Information Literacy defines information literacy as "the ability to know when there is a need for information, to be able to identify, locate, evaluate, and effectively use that information for the issue or problem at hand."
Computer literacy:Computer literacy is the ability to use computers and related technology efficiently, with a range of skills covering levels from elementary use to programming and advanced problem solving.
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