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1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Over the years, science education which includes subjects like biology, chemistry and physics in Nigeria has faced various challenges. The school curriculum as guaranteed by the national policy on education offers a child-centered teaching-learning approach as students are expected to get the best of teaching from qualified teachers in other to perform academically. In Nigeria, the inclusion of science subjects in the school curriculum is to promote national development as the nation adopts more science oriented policies and programmes in education (Oriahi et al., 2010). Poor performance of students in science subjects can be as a result of motivation for teachers; poor infrastructural facilities for teachers; lack of teaching skills and competence by science teachers; and lack of opportunities for professional development of science teachers (Braimoh and Okadeyi, 2001; Olaleye, 2002). Other factors include syllabus, teacher’s qualifications, workload, experience and disposition, general lack of teaching skills and ineffective style of delivery of subject matter are also identified as some of the causes (Adepoju, 1991; Salau, 1996). Scientific issues involve the teaching of biological concepts through technology so as to develop science through interesting contexts. The inclusion of science technology-society (S-T-S) issues in the school curriculum (Osborne and Collins, 2000) will achieve the engagement of students in problem solving activities. Ideal teaching refers to the teaching and learning process as it is expected to take place in a classroom in an ideal situation with all necessary conditions to enhance teachers’ performance. Actual teaching is the teaching and learning process that actually takes place in the classroom in relation to the prevailing academic and environmental conditions. Quality teaching is the process of continuously improving teaching and learning in order to enhance educational attainment in the school system. It is the principal measure of the effectiveness of education and the most attribute to suffer.
Teaching can only bring the desired goals if obstacles and challenges of teachers are effectively tackled (Aminu, 1995). Since biology is a science oriented subject, its teachers must be concentrated on their task of making students assimilate the subject effectively in other to enhance performance and in doing this the challenges of biology teachers in discharging their noble dusty has to be minimized and eliminated if possible as this would go a long way in enhancing students performances in Biology in both internal and external examinations which by extension would strengthen the educational sector of the county.
Quality teaching in biology is essential for developing literate citizens and improving economic productivity for sustainable development. It enhances students’ achievement and strengthens public confidence in schools.
1.2. STATEMENT OF THE GENERAL PROBLEM
The general poor academic performance of students in biology and other science subjects in both internal and external examinations and the lack of students interested in science oriented subjects has been a cause for a major concern as it has negatively affected the educational sector of the country. The constant depreciation of the quality of teaching in our secondary school system has left little to be desired as it has led to brain drain and has massively contributed to the massive drop out in our government secondary schools as students are no longer interested in studying.
1.3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine the major problems encountered by biology teachers in secondary schools. Other specific objectives of the study include;
1. To determine the quality of teachings in biology in secondary schools.
2. To examine if the major problems encountered by biology teachers affects the productivity.
3. To examine the impact of these problems of these teachers on students’ performance in Biology in secondary schools.
4. To recommend ways of eliminating these problems faced by biology teachers in secondary schools.
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the quality of teachings of biology in secondary schools?
2. Do the major problems encountered by biology teachers affect the productivity?
3. What is the impact of these problems of these teachers on students’ performance in Biology in secondary schools?
4. What are the ways of eliminating these problems faced by biology teachers in secondary schools?
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: The major problems encountered by biology teachers do not influence their level of productivity.
H1: The major problems encountered by biology teachers influences their level of productivity.
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings from the study would be of immense importance to the educational sector as a whole and other relevant stakeholders as it would reveal the major challenges encountered by biology teachers in secondary schools. The study would also benefit students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing a further on the subject matter.
1.7. SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to the major problems encountered by biology teachers in secondary schools in sokoto metropolis.
Limitations of the study
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
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