THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ON STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS

THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ON STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study
ICT stands for information & communication technologies. ICT refers to technologies that provide access to information through communications. It is similar to information technology (IT). “But primarily focuses on communication technologies. This includes the internet, wireless network, cell phones & other communications medium”. In the past few decades information & communication technologies have provided to society with vast array of a new communication capabilities. “People can communicate in real time with others in different countries using technologies such as instant messaging, voice over IP and video conferencing, social networking websites like face book allow users from all over the world to remain in contact and communicate on a regular basis”. Modern information communication technologies have created a global village in which people communicate with others across the world as if they were living next door. “For this reason ICT is often studied in the context of how modern communication technologies affected society” (tech factor, January 04, 2010). ICT stands for information & communications technology is an umbrella term that includes any communication device, encompassing radio, television, cell phones, computer and network hardware, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services & applicate with them such as video conferencing and distance learning. “ICT are often spoken of a particular context such as ICTs in education, health care, or libraries” (Margaret Rouse, September, 2005). “ICT (information and communications technology or technologies) is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning”. ICT (information and communications technology - or technologies) is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning. “ICTs are often spoken of in a particular context, such as ICTs in education, health care, or libraries” (Abe & Adu, 2007). The world of today is characterized by revolutionary advances powered by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The world is being reduced to a global village through the use of information and communication technology thus, ICT promotes national development and better relationship with other nations. ICT refers to the electronic and communication devices associated with human interactive materials that enable users to employ them for a whole range of teaching and learning process (Cox, Preston and Cox, 1999a). Information Communication Technology is the fusion of two technologies: They are Information Technology (IT) and Communication Technology (CT) (Iwu, 2006). ICT embraces all technologies for manipulative communication of information and also encompasses any medium used to record information such as: radio, television, etc., and technology for communication through voice and sound or images using microphone, camera, loudspeaker, telephone/ mobile phones (Osu, Udosen, and Akpan, 2010). Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are indispensable and have been accepted as part of the contemporary world, especially in the industrialized societies to the extent of giving a new phase to the education system in terms of pedagogical approach (Ololube, 2006). According to Fari (2010), information and communication technology facilities are described as all the facilities available for the identification, generation, processing, storage, packaging, preservation, conservation and transfer of information, regardless of time and distance constraints. In other words, Information and Communication Technologies are information handling tools used for producing, storing, processing, distributing and exchanging of information.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The pattern of teaching and learning process today is expected to shift from the conventional method to a more dynamic and flexible one, which is learner-centred (Ezekoka and Okoli, 2012). This learner-centred approach makes students to influence the content, activities, materials and pace of learning, which places them in the centre of the learning process and enhances independent learning (Collins and O‟Brien, 2003). However, despite the glaring relevance of ICT in education, coupled with the huge capital investment of both Federal and State governments through ICT driven project known as “school net” Adomi, (2006) and Okebukola (2004) and donations from Non Governmental Organizations to Secondary schools in Nigeria, some teachers are still reluctant, ineffective and unproductive in using ICT facilities to improve students’‟ academic performance. It is on this note that the researcher intends to investigate the impact of information and communication technology on student’s academic performance.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to ascertain the impact of ICT on student academic performance. For the successful completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following sub objective
i) To ascertain the impact of ICT on secondary school students academic performance.
ii) To ascertain the relationship between the use of ICT and the conventional approach in teaching and learning in secondary schools.
iii) To investigate the role of ICT on students academic performance
iv) To ascertain the effect of ICT on the learning culture of secondary school students.

1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study; the following research hypotheses are formulated;
H0: information communication technology has no impact on students academic performance.
H1: information communication technology has a significant impact on student’s academic performance
H02: there is no relationship between the use of ICT and the use of the conventional approach in teaching and students academic performance 
H2: there is a significant relationship between the use of ICT and the use of the conventional approach in teaching and students academic performance

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the will be of great importance to the ministry of education in formulating policies and ensuring that secondary schools adopt and implement the use of information communication technology in public secondary schools.
The study will also be of great importance to the management of public secondary schools as the study will serve as a guide to the management to explore the benefit of ICT in teaching and learning in public secondary the study will also be beneficial to researchers who intends to embark on study in similar topic as the study will serve as a guide to their study. Finally the study will be beneficial to academia’s students and the general public schools.

1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the impact of information and communication technology on students performance in public secondary schools. In the cause of the study, the researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
(a)Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
(b)Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
(c)Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
ICT
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is an extended term for information technology (IT) which stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual  
Computers 
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out an arbitrary set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. The ability of computers to follow a sequence of operations, called a program, make computers very applicable to a wide range of tasks. Such computers are used as control systems for a very wide variety of industrial and consumer devices.
Students
A student or pupil is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution. In Britain those attending university are termed "students". In the United States, and more recently also in Britain, the term "student" is applied to both categories. In its widest use, student is used for anyone who is learning, including mid-career adults who are taking vocational education or returning to university

1.8 Organization of the study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion and also recommendations made of the study.


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