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1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The roles of guidance and counseling have increased overtime in most secondary schools in Nigeria; its effect is mostly noticed in the academic performance of secondary schools students.
Guidance and counselling are two closely interrelated concepts and each determines the availability and efficient of the other.
According to Makinde (1984) and Patterson (1977), “guidance” refers to a broad area of all educational activities and services aimed at assisting individual students to understand themselves and adjust to school life.
The adoption of guidance and counseling services in most secondary schools in Nigeria was as a result of behavioural pattern of students in most schools. The schools environment, peer group and their relationship with teachers has a role to play in the academic performance of students.
The movement for the adoption of counseling services emphasizes on personal issues, social and emotional adjustments in order to develop and promote students’ character and avoid behavioural problems (Oketch, 2004).
The goal of high school guidance counselling services is to help every student develop abilities of self-understanding, decision- making, life planning studies on the modification of behaviour among students and action taking to be able to adjust to social and emotional adjustment (Watanabe-Muraoka, 2007).
In a school, the programme assists students in harmonizing their abilities, interests and values and enables them to develop their full potential. It directs students on appropriate career and subject choices; solving discipline, education, social and psychological problems; and general adjustment to school life (Gerardo, 2006).
In Nigeria, the need for guidance and counseling in schools has been recognized when a survey was done on 20 school counselors selected from different states of the federation and the main problems examined. It was noted that, there is great need for a clear rationale and guidelines for Guidance and Counseling programs, and also the Guidance Counselors.
The main goal is to help the counselee learn to deal more effectively with himself anytime he/she is in trouble and the reality of his environment so as to improve the academic performances.
Allis and Kame (1999) conducted a survey in Alexandria in Egypt on indiscipline among 2170 preparatory and secondary school students attending mainstream governmental schools, in this study Indiscipline among school students and its predictors were investigated. Few indiscipline cases were related to family background whereas the majority was related to the children themselves and according to the research it has a major effect on the academic performance of these students. Schools are social organizations which have several objectives to achieve and role in guidance of students in shaping their academic performances.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
What really instigated the study on the impact of guidance and counseling services on the academic performance of study was due to high level of poor academic performance of students despite the numerous ways in which they are guided either by their teachers or parents which seems to be caused by inability of the students to follow the laid down rules and regulations. Despite the fact that, guidance and counseling programs are made available in both homes and in schools, there is still great height of indiscipline among student which contributed has influence on their academic performance.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the research work is to examine the impact of guidance and counseling services on the academic performance of students in some selected secondary schools in Gwagwalada area council. Other specific objectives include:
1. To determine the impact of guidance and counseling services on academic performance of students
2. To examine the relationship between discipline and students academic performance
3. To investigate on the factors affecting the performance of students in some secondary school in Gwagwalada area council
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The study came up with research questions so as to ascertain the above stated objectives. The specific research questions are stated below as follows:
1. What is the impact of guidance and counseling services on academic performance of students?
2. What is the relationship between discipline and students academic performance?
3. What are the factors affecting the performance of students in some secondary school in Gwagwalada area council?
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
HO: There is no significant relationship between guidance and counseling services students’ academic performance
HA: There is significant relationship between guidance and counseling services students’ academic performance
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The outcome of this research will help in educating and concomitantly serving as a guide to both parents and schools on the effect of guidance on the academic performance of students.
This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study of impact of guidance and counseling services on academic performance of students will involve students and teachers of selected secondary schools (government secondary school, government day secondary school, St. Theresa catholic schools, and federal government girls’ college) in Gwagwalada area council who will participate in this research
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
ACADEMIC: someone considered to be scholarly
PERFORMANCE: the accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed
STUDENT: a person formally engaged in learning, especially one enrolled in a school or college
GUIDANCE: the act or function of guiding, leadership and direction.
Influence: is the power to have an important effect on someone or something
COUNSELING: is the activity of the counselor, or a professional who counsels people especially on personal problems and difficulties
Allis, M.S &Kamel, M.I.(1999) Children Experiencing Violence. II: Relevance and Determinants of Corporal Punishment in Schools, Child Abuse and articles (Internet source).British Journal of Guidance and Counselling Volume 26, Issue 2. RSSCited Challenges.Publishers Enterprises (PEG), Malta.
Franken, R. E (1998) Human Motivation (4th edition) Brooks and Sole: Pacific Grove. Guidance AndCounsellingProgramme in Malawi Secondary Schools Neglect.
Nziramasanga, C.T. (1999). Report of the Presidential Commission of Inquiry into Paris: iac.
Sammut, J.M. (1997). Careers Education and Guidance in Malta-Issues and Taylor, M. & Francis, H. ( Online), (1998) School Counsellors Perceptions of a the Education and Training. Harare: Government Printers.
UNESCO. (2002). New Roles and Challenges for Guidance and Counselling.
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