THE IMPACT OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND STUDY HABITS OF HIGHER SECONDARY STUDENTS IN NIGERIA

THE IMPACT OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND STUDY HABITS OF HIGHER SECONDARY STUDENTS IN NIGERIA

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

In the field of education & psychology, learning has been discovered all over the world to be a highly complex problem. Several researchers have tried to explain it differently and the description of each is partially true. Over the years, researches on factors that influence academic performance of students have attracted the interest of not only researchers but concern of teachers, counselors, psychologists, and school administrators as well. Study method is the knowledge and application of effective study skills or techniques by students

. The term study habit refers to the way in which students’ study either systematically, efficiently or inefficiently. In line with what has been said above, we can deduce that good study habit will definitely yield positive academic performances and achievement and also inefficient or poor study habit leads to academic failure. Students’ attitude and study habit towards any subject has been described as a function of passion coupled with their belief on that particular which has a long way to go on their academic performances.
In Nigeria, many factors have been highlighted to influence the ability of students to cultivate effective and efficient study habit. Such factors include; state of health, motivation, anxiety and state of mind, conducive and suitable environment for studying, availability of textbooks and well equipped libraries. In a research carried out by (Nuthana & Yenagi, 2009) the causes of poor academic performance among Nigeria students were thoroughly examined. In which some of these factors identified include; low student’s intellectual ability, achievement motivation, lack of goals, low self-esteem, low socio-economic status of the family, poverty and poor study habit as a major factor.


A survey was carried out in some selected schools in Nigeria to identify some major causes of low academic performances in students. Some of the problems identified include inadequate teachers, problem of inadequate facilities in the school, problems caused by poor parental background, unfavorable government policies and low educational sector funding (Ajila and Olutola 2007). Likewise, Ichado (1998) also dispute environment from which the student comes from play a major role in influencing study habits which invariably affect academic performance. The concept of study habit is broad as it combines nearly all other sub-topics under it such as study attitude, study method, and study skill. In a research conducted by Allport (1960), it was argued that attitude toward study by drafting a good study pattern can greatly contribute to students’ academic performance. Successful learners all over the world are said to have adopted positive attitude towards study and are time conscious over what they have to do.


According to Hussain (2000) study habit refers to predispositions which students have developed towards private readings through a period of time. According to him, study habit is a gateway to successful achievement in studies.
A research was carried out by Morahan (1999), he found out that male and female have different ways of studying (study habit). In this study, he discovered that the male student took up courses that have more of logic and sciences while female student were attracted to simpler courses and such it is in line with their passion which require different study habit and might have a positive effect on academic performance of students. Positive academic performance and achievement depends upon the student’s ability to schedule his time, the plan of his study, the habit of concentration, note –taking, mental review, over learning, the judicious application of whole and part method massed and distributed learning and so on. In other words, positive academic performance is a function of proper study habits and skills. Since study habits are an important factor in learning, it becomes necessary to investigate into its nature.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The problems associated with study habits might have a major effect on a student’s academic performances, it is believed that everyone has a different study habit and it is important to find out the best personal way to study. Studying with friends has a long way to go in student’s study habits, it has a positive influence in which they discuss what have been read together but also has a negative effect in which they might not read but discuss throughout the stipulated time for reading which boils down to time wastage.
A very good and conducive environment encourages students study habit and might have positive impact of their academic achievements but students reading in an unfavorable environment might find it difficult to study which might affect their academic achievements. Students with financial constraints might also find it difficult to perform excellently well in their academics

OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study:

To examine the correlation between study habit and academic performance
To examine the effect of study environment on study habit
To determine factors affecting students’ study habit and academic performance


RESEARCH QUESTIONS

What is the correlation between study habit and academic performance?
What is the effect of study environment on study habit?
What are the factors affecting students’ study habit and academic performance?
HYPOTHESIS
Hypothesis 1
HO: There is no significant relationship between study habit and academic performance
HA: There is significant relationship between study habits and academic performance
Hypothesis 2
HO: There is no significant relationship between study environment and students’ academic performance
HA: There is significant relationship between study environment and students’ academic performance

SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:

The outcome of this study will help students in understanding the effect on study habit and study environment on their academic performance and helps in serving as a guide for a positive result.
This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.


SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
This study on the impact of study habit on academic performance of students will cover various approaches to study and its effect on the academic performance of students.
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Study: application of the mind to the acquisition of knowledge, as by reading, investigation or reflection
Habit: an acquired behavior pattern regularly followed until it has become almost involuntary.
Performance: the accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed
Students: a person formally engaged in learning, especially one enrolled in a school or college

THE INFLUENCE OF PARENTAL INFLUENCE ON STUDY HABITS OF STUDENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

          In a society that demands a high level of education and skill for a successful and stable future, a decent education is becoming increasingly important.

A child’s education is the shared responsibility of the school and the home outside the school, the home is the most salient source of learning, encouragement and support for a child.

However, parental influence is often overlooked in discussion of a child’s academic performance.

Alison Rich; (2002) examines the different ways that parents influence their children’s education. The components of parental influence are discussed under three (3) main heading:-

(i)           Parental resources

(ii)          Parental support

(iii)        Parental involvement

Parental Resources: Refers to income levels parental education and parental employment. A high family income can increase education opportunities and means that there is more likely to be educational materials in the home such as books, computer, and so on. Having a parent who has a high level of education is also an important factor.

Resource shows that children from highly educated families often follow in their parent footsteps are more likely to complete high school and undertake further study. In addition, a parent employment may affect their children’s education.

Children with unemployed parental are less likely to complete school, are less likely to do well at school. Parental involvement in a child’s education can be crucial in developing a child’s academic ability and confidence; parents can actively contribute to the functioning of their child’s education by taking part in school committees attending sporting and social events attending parents’ teachers association, volunteering and so on. By so doing parents positively influence their child’s schooling experience and children are more likely to see the importance of education if their parents are involved.

Also parents can influence their children’s educational outcome by maintaining an interest in their progress at school and their post school plan.

Rich (2002) argues that the home environment should be conductive for learning. In the years prior to school, parents can do a lot to build strong foundations for a successful and positive school experience. Parents can continue to help, develop their children’s skills and abilities by talking to their children about certain issues or school related topic.

If parents cannot invest time in active school participation, or cannot afford to provide educational materials or lack the academic ability to help with school work, they can at least provide parental support this can be done by making an effort to enforce good study habits and by holding high aspiration for their children’s progress.

Parents who value education can win the fight against all odds to ensure that their children achieve academically.

Any schooling reform that does not acknowledge the importance of the parents will fail.

Rich (2002) moves forward to discuss issues affecting students study habit and academic performances as he cited family breakdown and how this influences children’s education. It is clear that family life has a significant impact on children’s education in many ways. In light of this, family structure is a serious issue in education, especially given the increasing rate of divorce and family breakdown due to number of reasons.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Over the years, cases of mass failure have been recorded in secondary schools across the country; both in internal and external examinations. This failure is tied to many reasons as the students of this age are distracted by a lot of things most especially with the advent of technology.

However, one of the things that have contributed towards the increase in failure amongst the students is the fact that most parents delegate the whole duty of training their children to the teachers; forgetting the popular saying that “charity begins at home”. Similarly, they do not look into the activities of their children, most especially their academic performance.

Due to such poor parental attitudeby parents in training their children, the rate of exam malpractice, failure, and other social vices associated with youths, etc. are on the increase. Most parents are way too busy chasing money and even pleasure in some cases that they do not bother to create time to look into their children’s educational activities.

Another notable problem of this study is the stigma on Africans with regards to poor reading. There is a saying that if a person wants to hide something from a black man it should be hide in a book. Blacks, Nigerians in particular are lazy to read; that notion is in the air and students are not reading instead they are seeking for fast means of making good grades.

However, this study seeks to examine and proffer solutions to the problems of parental influence on study habits of students.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

This study is meant to inform, educate, sensitize and enlighten the general public, especially parents of their influence on the study habit of students.

The study serves as a reminder to parents that they have a role to play in improving the study habit of their children and that it is not solely the duty of the teachers to improve academic performance of the students.

However, this study seeks to remind policy makers that they should formulate policies that will promote students’ study habit across schools in Nigeria.

In addition, the media have a role to play. They could come up with programmes that will spur parents and improve students reading habit.

Stated above are the purposes of this study.

.

1.4       Research objectives

                             I.        To determine the influence of parents education on students study habit.

                           II.        To find out the influence of parental occupation on students study habit.

                          III.        To find out the Influence of parental level of motivation on students study habit.

                         IV.        To discover the influence of family size on students study habit.

1.5       Research Question

                             I.        What is the influence of parents’ education on students study habit?

                           II.        Does parental occupation influence students study habit?

                          III.        Does parental level of motivation influence students study habit?

                         IV.        Does family size influence students study habit?

1.6Research Hypothesis

Ho1: There is no statistically significant influence of parental influence on students study habit.

1.7       Significant of the Study

The finding of this research work will contribute to the knowledge of the researcher, parents, children, teachers and the entire general public, the contributions would also aid to the existing literature for further studies.

It is expected that this research work will:

a)    Serves as a reference point to other researchers who are interested in the area of parental influence.

b)   Encourage more researchers in this area to examine possibilities of other home based factors that are not included.

c)    Help and encourage parents of low background to improve their home environment to enable their children go to school and acquire the culture that goes with it.

d)   Be a source of benefit to teacher and other educational administrators in identifying the area of strength and weakness of their student and the influence of the home particularly of the secondary school student.

1.8                Scope of the Study

The subject of parental influence on the student study habits and their academic performance is critical, wide and consistency and dynamic changing with evolving trend in global environment.

The scope of the study would be limited to:

(i)           Bright Star International Group of School, Oyo

(ii)          Ojongbodu Grammar School, Oyo

(iii)        Community High School, Awumoro, Oyo

(iv)         Baptist High School, Isokun, Oyo

(v)          Opapa Grammar School, Oyo  

1.9     &nb


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