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Background of the Study
Science is the bedrock on which modern day technological breakthrough is hinged. Different authors according to their own understanding have defined Science. Igwe (2003) defined science as a systematic study of the nature of the behaviour of the material and physical universe through observation, experimentation, measurement and recording. In addition, Esu (2004) defined science as a systematic, precise, objective way to study the natural world. Science is often an exciting and satisfying enterprise that requires creativity, skill and insight based on this Fape (2007) defined science as rationally structured knowledge about nature, which embraces systematic methods of positive attitudes for its acquisition, teaching, learning and application.
The major goal of science education is to develop scientifically literate individuals that are concerned with high competence for rational thoughts and actions. The objectives of science education in this country according to Maduekwe (2006) include the need to prepare students to observe and explore the environment, explain simple natural phenomena, develop scientific attitudes including curiosity, critical reflection and objectivity, apply the skills and knowledge gained through science to solve everyday problems in the environment, develop self-confidence and self-reliance through problem solving activities in science.
In recent times, countries all over the world, especially the developing ones like Nigeria, are striving hard to develop technologically and scientifically, since the world is turning Scientific and all proper functioning of lives depend greatly on Science. According to Ogunleye (2006), Science is a dynamic human activity concerned with understanding the workings of our world. This understanding helps man to know more about the universe. Without the application of science, it would have been difficult for man to explore the other
planets of the universe. Science comprises the basic disciplines such as Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology.
Biology is one of the science subjects that senior secondary school students offer at the senior levels in the Nigerian secondary schools, (FRN, 2004). Biology is a very important science subject and a requirement for further learning of a number of science-related professional courses like medicine, agriculture, pharmacy, etc. In contemporary Nigeria, greater emphasis is placed on science and technological development. As a result, students are being encouraged to take up science-related subjects. Today, Biology pervades literally every field of human endeavour, and plays a fundamental role in educational advancement. This is seen in all the technological advancement in the world today, which is because of scientific investigations. However, the issue remains that in most secondary schools in Nigeria, there is high rate of failure in the subject.
Studies have shown that secondary school students are exhibiting low interest in Biology (Esiobu, 2005). This low interest of students in biology has been traced to poor achievement in examinations. In our match towards scientific and technological advancement, we need nothing short of good achievement in biology at all levels of schooling. Unfortunately, achievement of students in biology at the end of the secondary school has not improved in the last decade (Umoinyang, 1999). Folorunso (2004) has linked poor achievement trend in biology particularly to the lack of instructional resources in schools due to poor funding of schools. The poor funding of schools has hindered the principals from providing the teachers with adequate instructional resources.
The National Policy on Education (FME, 2004) emphasizes the need for teaching and learning of science processes and principles. The policy recommends practical, exploratory and experimental methods of teaching. In this regards, Okebukola (2004) stated that the basic tools that science uses in the learning of science processes are the instructional materials.
Studies have shown that the use of instructional materials have improved achievement (George, 2008) and Nwagbo (2006). Instructional materials are wide varieties of equipment and materials use for teaching and learning by teachers to stimulate self-activity on the part of the students. The teaching of Biology without instructional materials may certainly result in poor academic achievement. Poor academic achievement in Biology could also be attributed to many factors such as, low interest of students in biology, inadequate motivation from teacher, poor incentives to biology teachers, lack of adequate supply of instructional material, lack of qualified teachers, and use of teacher centered instructional strategies, inadequate use of instructional materials and use of abstract standardized materials. Among these factors, teacher’s use of abstract standardized instructional strategy is considered as an important factor in this study.
This implies that the mastery of Biology concepts might not be fully achieved without the use of instructional resources that the students are abreast with. The teaching of Biology without instructional materials may certainly result in poor academic achievement. Folorunso (2004) observed that there is lack of adequate and appropriate instructional resources for effective teaching of Biology in schools. For Ibitoye and Fape (2007), the poor achievement in biology was traced to poor usage of instructional resources for biology teaching and learning, poor state of infrastructure facilities, large class size, poor teaching, use of faulty assessment practice, and inadequacy of quality teachers. According to Okebukola (2004), the poor state of laboratory facilities and inadequate use of instructional materials has constituted a cog in the wheel of students’ achievement in Biology in the Senior School Examination. The verbal exposition does not promote skill acquisition, objectivity, and critical thinking abilities that will enable the child to function effectively in the society. This according to the researcher leads to poor achievement of students in the subject. Okebukola and Jegede (1986) stressed that a professionally qualified Biology teacher no
matter how well trained, would be unable to put his ideas into practice if the school setting lacks the equipment and material resources necessary for him or her to translate his competence into reality.
The report of West African Examination Council (WAEC) on the Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) (2011) on student enrolment and performance in Nigeria by subject, grade, and sex revealed low enrolment of girls for science subjects as well as low academic achievement in biology and other science subjects and the persistent poor achievement of students in biology at senior school certificate examination (WAEC; Chief Examiner’s report 2007-2010), leaves one in doubt about the effectiveness of instructional materials and teaching methods popularly used by the biology teachers for the teaching and learning of biology.
On this note, resources are seen as materials, which help in doing something. For example, flour, sugar, water, and so on serve as resources for the preparation of bread or cake. In the classroom situation, resources are materials or devices that are used to facilitate teaching and learning. National Teachers Institute (2010) reported that resources in the classroom can be classified into two broad categories, those that appeal to the sense of sight which are classified as visual resources and those which appeal to the sense of hearing, classified as audio materials. There are also those that combine both features and are classified as audio-visual (A-V) materials. Isola (2010) referred to instructional resources as objects or devices, which help the teacher to make a lesson much clearer to the learner. Instructional materials are also described as concrete or physical objects, which provide sound, visual, or both to the sense organs during teaching (Agina-obu, 2005).
However, if these conventional Instructional Materials are not available or inadequate, they can be locally made by using resources in the environment as alternative. These will include used electrical bulb for round bottom flask; beverage tins for convex and concave mirror; juices of unripe orange as acid, solution of ash from wood as base, candle or stove as burner, teaspoon for spatula (Okebukola, 2006). Improvised instructional materials may not be identical with the conventional one; therefore teachers should be skilful in their handling and using them (Igwe, 2003). Improvisation requires a considerable development through imaginative planning and good knowledge.
According to Ajayi (2004), improvisation is the provision of alternatives to real things. Improvisation is the making of substitutes when the real equipment or material is not adequate or available (Okebukola, 2002). It is the art of providing and using alternative materials or resources in the absence of the real or factory made one. Oyediran (2010) also defines improvisation as the art of using materials or equipment obtained from local environment or produced by the teacher, and with the assistance of the local personnel to enhance instruction. In other to teach by inquiry method or use activity based instructions, improvisation is required since instructional materials seem not to be adequate (Okebukola, 2002). Bassey (2002) defined improvisation as the process of making equipment and materials by the students or by engaging the services of others in the absence of real or manufactured ones. Generally, improvisation of instructional materials is an attempt to adapt and make use of local resources in the teaching/learning process when the ready- made materials are not available or are in shortfall or not within the reach of users. The teacher and the students could produce the improvised instructional materials. According to Okebukola (2002), improvisation in the context of biology can be seen as the process of using alternative
resources for enhancing biology teaching in the absence of the real ones. The teacher initiates the production of the alternative resources, which is constructed by either the teacher or the local artisans e.g. carpenters blacksmiths etc. The teacher may use the students for improvising some of the needed materials or equipments.
Improvisation is a technique of originating a very new tool, instrument, materials, device or modifying existing ones for serving a particular purpose. Improvisation of instructional materials in secondary schools for teaching/learning purposes cannot be over-emphasized. To be able to promote quality instruction in our school system, there is the need to pay attention to improvisation of instructional materials in the teaching/learning process. Esu (2004) however noted that improvisation demands adventure, creativity, curiosity and perseverance on the part of the teacher, such skills are only realizable through well-planned training programme on improvisation. Fajola (2008) sees improvisation from the creativity involved. These creativity are substitution and construction. Substitution in improvisation simply implies the techniques whereby an already local material is used in place of a piece of equipment that is not available whereas construction involves making of a new instrument to serve in place of the unavailable original one, where substitution is not possible. Esu (2004), however asserted that improvisation provides connectivity between students abstract and real experience of teaching and learning.
Improvisation is a teacher-oriented activity used to effectively carry out the teaching/learning process successfully. Bassey (2002) identified two main constraints militating against the successful improvisation of Science equipments. These are the technical and the human factors respectively. The technical factors relate to the question of degree of accuracy and precision that is possible with the improvised equipment, the human factor relates to the teachers’ skill in developing the resources while providing the appropriate learning experience to the learners. In addition, Mbajiorgu (2003) reported lack of adequate professional training as a major problem militating against the effective use of local resources for Science teaching. (Isola, 2010) then stressed the need for a definite well planned training programme of improvisation for teachers. Isola (2010) suggested regular meaningful workshop on improvisation technique for Science teachers to improve and update their competence. The use of teacher produced improvised instructional materials and exposure of students to resources available in their immediate environment for instruction at this level brings students to real world of activities and may help students gain scientific skills. The environment of the school as well as the homes of teachers provide rich sources of materials and a resourceful teacher can on his/her own or with the help of the students and other members of the society, improvise these materials for teaching/learning purpose. The use of improvised instructional materials for Biology teaching has been long advocated (Olumorin, 2004). For Olumorin (2004), the production of instructional materials had undergone several reviews and processes by experts from various fields.
Statement of the Problem
Evidence from the studies reviewed shows that failure rate in biology at senior certificate examinations is high. This could be attributed to a number of factors; one of such factors is lack or total absence of instructional materials. In teaching and learning, instructional materials play a key role towards concretizing learning. Instructional materials make learning meaningful and help to improve students’ academic achievement. However these advantages of instructional materials have not reflected in the education system because of the dearth of these instructional materials in our schools. Hence, the need for alternative instructional materials called improvisation.
Biology is resource intensive, and in an era of poor funding or scarcity of resources, it may be very difficult to find some of the original materials and equipment for the teaching of Biology in schools adequately, improvisation becomes the next option. Studies have shown the importance of improvisation in teaching of Biology. All these studies used conventional instructional materials, but there have not been studies specifically on the effect of students’
improvised instructional materials on students’ achievement in Biology. This study therefore, is geared towards finding out if the use of students’ improvised instructional materials could bring a solution to the problem of poor achievement of students in biology. Hence, the problem of this study is therefore posed as a question; what is the effect of students improvised instructional materials on students’ achievement in Biology?
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of students' improvised instructional materials on students’ achievement in biology.
This study specifically will determine:
1. effect of students improvised instructional materials and conventional materials on students’ mean achievement scores in Biology
2. influence of gender on students’ mean achievement scores in biology when taught using students improvised instructional materials
3. influence of school location on students’ mean achievement scores in biology when taught using students improvised instructional materials
4. interaction effects of material and gender on students’ mean achievement scores in biology
5. interaction effect of material and location on students’ mean achievement scores in biology
Significance of the Study
The theoretical significance of this study is anchored on the cognitive development theory of Jean Piaget. According to Piaget, children develop knowledge by inventing or constructing reality out of experience and thus mix their observation with their ideas about how the world works. Piaget’s theory of intellectual development holds that cognitive development takes place from active interaction of the child with his environment. This means that the basis of learning is the child’s own ability as he interacts with his physical and social environment. Piaget is of the opinion that a child must act on the objects in his environment for him to learn. This means that he should be actively involved not be passive. The active involvement of the child may be in form of direct manipulation, visual observation or through mental or internal transportation or change. Therefore, this study will help to validate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development or question the theory.
This study will be useful to classroom teachers, curriculum planners, students, researchers and parents. For teachers they will be better informed on how to help and guide their students on better way of producing improvised materials with local resources where standardised materials are unavailable or inadequate. The teachers can also engage students to do some of the illustrations during biology instructions.
This study will help to develop problem solving skill in students and will also help student to be more resourceful during lessons. The study could be beneficial to curriculum planners who would design functional curriculum by taking into considerations students-teachers improvised instructional materials.
The findings of this study, if discussed in workshops and seminars will guide the choice of improvised instructional materials used in the teaching/learning process in biology and other subject areas. The findings of this study will equally help to alleviate the problem of the scarcity of instructional materials for biology teaching/learning.
Scope of the Study
The study is on the effect of students improvised materials on students’ achievement in biology. This study will be conducted with SS I Biology students in secondary schools in Potiskum LGA of Yobe state, Nigeria. The contents are:
1. Ecological concepts
2. Ecological factors; type
3. Soil; types and its effects on the vegetation
4. Functioning Ecosystem, food chain, food web and trophic level
Gender and location are the other moderating variables of the study.
The following research questions will guide this study:
1. What is the mean achievement scores of students taught biology using students improvised instructional materials and those taught using conventional instructional materials?
2. What is the influence of gender on students’ mean achievement scores in biology when taught using students improvised instructional materials?
3. What is the influence of school location on students’ mean achievement scores in biology when taught using student’s improvised instructional materials?
4. What is the interaction effect of material and genders on students’ mean achievement scores in biology?
5. What is the interaction effect of material and locations on students mean achievement scores in biology when taught using students improvised instructional materials?
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