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The study examined the impact of Boko Haram insurgency on education in Adamawa state. The data is primary in nature, sourced through the distribution of 372 questionnaires to the affected local governments. Structural Equation Model (SEM) was the model was used in analysis data collected. The findings indicated that, educational output (human capital investment) is affected by school enrolment, school attendance and school infrastructure by 71%, 84% and 82% as a result of any 1% increase in Boko Haram. It also revealed that, extreme religious beliefs, unemployment, and illiteracy contributed to the occurrence of Boko Haram insurgency. The study concluded that Boko Haram insurgency indirectly and significantly affects human capital investment through school enrolments, school attendance and school infrastructure. The study therefore recommended that, Government should provide employment opportunities for the citizens and encourages self-reliance in programmes such as agricultural borrower’s schemes. Free education to increase literacy rate to every citizen, and government should be in constant dialogue with religious scholars/leaders (Muslims and Christians) on religious issues.
1.1 Background of the study
Education is under attack, as incidents of violence against students, teachers, union, schools and government officials are on the rise worldwide and in Nigeria in particular. Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria, deliberate threat against students, academics, teachers and education facilities create barrier to accessing quality education for all. Education is a right, like the right to have proper food or roof over ones head. Article 26 of the 1996 universal declaration of human right states that, “everyone has the right to education”. Education is not only a right but passport to human development. It opens doors and expands opportunities and freedom. It contributes to fostering peace, democracy and economic growth as well as improving health and reducing poverty. The ultimate aim of education for all (EFA) is sustainable development. The education for all movement is a global commitment to provide quality education for all children, youth and adults. It aims to achieve six key education goals by 2015, which relates to: early childhood care, primary education, youth and adult learning, literacy, gender and education quality. In the year 2000, the world’s government adopted the six EFA goals and eight millennium development goals (MDGs), the two most important frameworks in the field of education. The education priorities of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) are shaped by these objectives. The two sets of goals are an ambition roadmap for the global community including Nigeria to follow. They offer a long term vision or reduce poverty and hunger, better health and education, sustainable life styles, strong partnership and shared commitments. Considerable progress has been made since the world’s leaders committed to achieving education for all by 2015. Within the space of a decade, the number of out-of-school children has dropped by more than 38 million and the gender gap in formal education has been narrowed. Literacy rates have also increased, albeit slowly (EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2011).
Obioma (2012) noted that some of these terrorist attacks are politically motivated even though some may have other ancillary motives such as religious, economic or social. Before the declaration of amnesty for Niger Delta youths by President Yaradua in 2005, the Niger Delta region had terrorist groups such as Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People (MOSOP), Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), Niger Delta. People Volunteer Force, the Egbesu Boys, and Niger Delta Vigilante with a long history dating to the Adaka Boro Movement in the 1960’s. (Ayangese, 2010) and through to Ken Saro Wiwa’s struggles. These militant groups launched agitation against environmental degradation, unemployment, poverty, deprivation and marginalization in the Niger Delta areas of Nigeria. In the East, the Bakassi Boys and the Bakassi Movement for the Actualizations of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) are also terrorist groups fighting for equal rights and security of N’digbo true federalism, autonomy and political relevance of the Igbo people in Nigeria having been ravaged by the civil war and abandoned thereafter. The Odual People’s congress (OPC) is the militating wing and mouth-piece of the Egbe-Omo-Oduduwa for the Yorubas in the Western Region of Nigeria. It was used by dominant political parties in the West to advance their courses and achieve sanity. The Arewa People’s congress in the Northern Region was also a formidable group. Several pockets of minor militant groups also arose in places like the Jos Plateau area, Igala, Idoma, Zaki, Ihiam etc There interest was mainly on land acquisition, boundary adjustment and grazing rights.
The current Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria is threatening to halt or even reverse this progress. Education is under attack in northern Nigeria. Since the beginning of 2012, according to Amnesty International’s research, about 70 teachers and over 1000 school children have been killed or wounded. About 50 schools have either been burned or seriously damaged and more than 60 others have been forced to close. Thousands of children have been forced out of schools across communities in Yobe, Kaduna, Adamawa and Borno states. Many teachers have been forced to flee for their safety to other states. The highest number of attacks was in Borno state in the North-east. According to the Nigeria teachers’ union, more than 1000 teachers have been forced to flee from areas in the north since 2012. Based on this backdrop of adverse effect of Boko Haram on education for all (EFA) in Nigeria, one is inclined to ask the question; how can Nigeria at the peak of Boko Haram insurgency arrive at EFA objectives by 2015 barely seven months from now?
Education in Nigeria, especially North-eastern part of the country is confronted with the challenges of Boko Haram insurgency. This is because the Boko Haram insurgency has led to the destruction of many schools which have made the affected states to close down school and colleges for a long period of time. It has affected education in the north eastern state - low school enrolment, especially for girls as well as high number of out of school children. The main objective of the study is examined the impact of Boko Haram insurgency is school attendance and enrolment.
Furthermore, it has been observed that, most of the studies reviewed were concerned merely with the positive or negative effect of Boko Haram insurgency broadly. Like the studies of Oladujoye and Omemu (2013), Mohammed (2015), Awortu (2015). This study however, examined the degree of responsiveness of educational output as result of the occurrence of Boko Haram insurgency using Structural Equation Model (SEM), which none of the study adopted as a method of analysis, in order to determine whether its impacts significantly or insignificantly affects.
1.2 Statement of Problem.
Attendance to school is dependent on the readiness of the child, encouragement from parents, provision of school materials, distance to school and above all the security of the child. Boko Haram has become a threat to most parents and pupils in most Northern States. There are series of cases of bombing and burning of schools and houses in Northern Nigeria. What then is the effect of this on school attendance among pupils/students in such areas?
The terrorist organization preys on the disillusioned Muslims of the north, who are fed up with corruption. And have few economic opportunities, Nigeria is a heterogeneous country divided by two religious beliefs aside traditional religion. The northern half of the country is almost completely Muslim (50 per cent of the total Nigerians population) and the southern half is mostly dominated by Christians (40 per cent of the total Nigerians population). Originating in the Muslim dominated northern region of the country, the movement other rejected everything deemed western. The activities of these groups —Boko Haram grew' its ranks by taking advantages of the widespread anger in the north over the country4s gap. In the north, 72 percent of the population live below' the poverty line, compared to only 22 percent in the southern part are Christians (Bartolta, 2011)
The political goal of Boko Haram sect is to create an Islamic nation in the twelve northern states of Nigerians, eventually, spreading to the rest of the country. From its inception Boko Haram viewed Nigeria as a state or a country running by non-believers and made the government its main target, even when the country had a Muslim president. It is against this backdrop that the study tend to investigate the effect of Boko haram insurgency on the educational implications on Nigerian students.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The main objective of this study is to find out if the activities of the Boko Haram have a direct effect on the attendance of pupils and students to schools especially in those vulnerable states in Nigeria.
Given below are the specific objectives of the study:
⦁ To determine if poor education is an inducing factor of Boko Haram insurgency in the North East.
⦁ To assess the effect of educational implication of Boko Haram insurgence in Nigeria.
⦁ To determine whether dialogue is a desideration to the Boko Haram menace in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
The following are the research questions that were drafted by the researcher to guide in executing the study.
⦁ Is poor education an inducing factor of Boko Haram insurgency in the North East?
⦁ What is the effect of educational implication of Boko Haram insurgence in Nigeria?
⦁ Is dialogue a desideration to the Boko Haram menace in Nigeria?
1.5 Significance of the Study
All individual lives in a world prone to crisis. No nation is free from crisis. Violence is now- endemic in human relations. The global threat of terrorism respect no boundaries or borders. Nigeria is not free from these threat, emanating from Boko Haram activities. This research work will attempt to answer some fundamental questions in Nigeria, and build up relevant literatures on Islamist fundamental, and contributes to academic, professional and security at large as it enlightens, develops and inform citizens and government of the reoccurring activities of domestic terrorists and making of possible for policy makers to strategize measures to handle the conflict in Nigeria.
Beyond serving as an addition to already existing literature, it will serve as a practical guide for those in the field of criminal investigation departments, anti-terrorism or counter insurgence.
This study is thereby motivated by strong desire to contribute to the ranging dissolution its educational implication on Nigeria’s development. It is therefore, hoped that this study will be relevant and of benefits to the students and scholars of political science, history, intelligent and security studies and the society at large.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of study
The scope of this research work is quite broad that it encompasses the investigation the effects of Boko Haram insurgency on the educational development of Nigerian students”. This study is limited to Adamawa State.
The limitation of this study, various factors contributed in affecting in researchers comprehensiveness and totality in carrying out the study. Among these factors are scarcity of relevant materials on the issue due to its continuous evolving nature and virginity experienced its apex in the course of the research interval. Despite, the financial problem, hindrance and shortcoming the research work will defiantly come to accomplished.
1.7 Definition of operational terms
Boko Haram: The term Boko Haram is a derivation of Hausa word “Boko” meaning “Animist” western or otherwise non-Islamic education‖, while Haram is a word with Arabic origin that figuratively means “sin” but literally, “forbidden”. In order words, Boko Harm means “western education is forbidden or is a sin”.
Violence: Violence is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the international use of physical force of power, threatened or actual against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injuries, death psychological harm, mal development or deprivation.
National Security: National security is best described as a capacity to control those domestic and foreign conditions that the public opinion of a given community believes necessary to enjoy its own self-determination or autonomy, prosperity and well being.
Development: The act or process of bringing to a more advanced state, growth, progress etc. it is also the gradual growth of something so that it becomes more advanced and stronger etc
1.8 Organization of Study
The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
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