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The physical environment is very important to the survival of the entire universe, and Nigeria as a nation has been battling to reduce the risks, resulting from poor sanitary conditions and unwholesome toilet habits in our cities and communities. Unfortunately, efforts to keep Nasarawa State clean, which culminated in a state crusade against filth has not succeeded in enthroning a sense of decency and the culture of environmental self discipline among the citizenry. This article is not only aimed at bringing to the fore the need for making Environmental Sanitation Education (EES) an integral part of Environmental Education content in the National Primary Science Core Curriculum (NPSCC) but also identifying the objectives, content, implementation strategies and evaluation processes of the said programme. Sanitation education will no doubt sharpen the citizen consciousness and encourage them to accept their responsibility in the proper management of the environment, thereby instilling a lasting sense of decency and engendering environmental friendliness.


1.0          Introduction

          This project work is on the attitude of people of Nasarawa State towards environmental sanitation. A case study of Lafia Local Government Area. The research intends to find out the attitudes of people towards environmental sanitation in Lafia Local government area whether positive or negative.

          There is no doubt that the issue to environmental sanitation is nationwide; however the degree of attitude of the inhabitants vary. The characteristics of environmental sanitation is problems which exist by such factors as uncontrolled reuse disposals. Lack of good water supplies, well constructed streets and pollution most of these problems either cause diseases or reduce the life span of the people.

          During Buhari and Idiagbon regime War Against Indiscipline (WAI) was declared on 20th March 1984 and enforced. The decree were in phases and the fourth was on keep your home and environment clean. 

          Though Buhari and Idiagbon were overthrown by Babangida regime on the 27th august 1985 and edict on environmental sanitation No: 16 1984 was established. In the same vain, the government of the plateau state also established sanitation educts No: 16 title plateau state environmental edict, 1984 with effect from 4th day at July 1984 (plateau state of Nigeria Gazetta No: 35 Vol. 9, 23th August 1984 supplement .A.)

Definition of sanitation: sanitation could be defined as arrangement to protect public health particularly, for the official and adequate disposal of swage. Lack of this arrangement or preparation made by the people living in these areas made sanitation of our environment poor and filthy. Environmental Sanitation Education (EES) 2005.

          Based on the above back ground the federal government state and local government determined it necessary to in getting ride or help to remedy this state of deplorable condition

1.1          Brief History of the Study Area.

          Lafia local government area with the headquarter in Lafia was created about some state as the same years in the country by administration of the late held of state and ;commander- in- chief of the armed force, General sanitation Abaiha.

1.2          Land Mass and Population

          Lafia local Government area occupies space about three thousand eight hundred (3,800) squatted Kilometers. The Local Government area share boundaries with Nasarawa Eggon in the Northern part with Doma Local Government area in the south western part respectively.

          The inhabitants that form Lafia Local Government Area are: Korao, Alago, Eggon and Hausa Fulani others are Ake Igbo and the Yorubas in the area who contribute immensely to the social- political and economic development of the area, one good thing about the area how ever is that despite the existence of the ethnic Linguistic population of area based on the 1991 national population census was one hundred and ninety thousand and nine hundred and sixty nine people while it is on the increase on daily basis. 

1.3          Markets

          Lafia as the centre of the Local Government has the largest number of markets in the local government area. Lafia market comes up everyday more market is every Thursday, Assakio comes up every Monday, Ashangwa comes up every Tuesday: The Market attracts businessmen/women all over the Local Government area and a lot of revenue accrued form it. Roads. Lafia town enjoys good roads network. A road from Assakio connects to town through Ahiqe, Ashangwa and Adogi.

          Another from Fadama, Ugah Gida  Buba Alawagana. Feeder roasts hank the town form all part of the local government supply. The town enjoys national electricity power authority supply for both domestic and commercial purpose water supply.

           Lafia inhabitants enjoys pipe borne water supply form SCC Mada yard which is situated along  Keffi road-Akwanga supplemented well and rain water.

1.4          Occupation

           A part form being predominantly farmers the people of the area also engage in transportation, wearing poultry, Local soap making a amongst others. The farmers produce yams, Maize, guinea corn, Ground Nut, Potatoes, Millet, Cassava, rice and rearing of domestic animals like sheep, goats, pigs, cattle and local poultry.

1.5          Agriculture

           The area is blessed with abundant human natural resources minerals such as clay. Gemstone, Quarty, Mica and Granites are found in the area while fishponds found in Agabu Bassa Doma, Yelwa and Jamaan Gaya.

1.6          Culture

           Lafia Local Government area is end owed with a cultural and traditional people with a very high sense of beauty the area is known for own darice form Lafia Eggon Anzalu Doma from Alakio, Kabari form Lafia Kanauri Ninzon Rawa Baya in the area

           Major  towns: some towns and villages in the ara include;

Lafia assakio, mai akiy, Adogi, Ashangwa ashige, Azuba, Fadama Ugah and Buba, Adamu Agyo, Angwan Madaki, Alagani and Sako Goma, Maraba Lafia Akuzen, Buka Kwato, Shabu .

1.7          Social Infrastructure Education

Lafia town has many primary schools owned by local government Namely Seth James primary school Donanama primary school, R. CM primary School etc.


           The town has adegute health facilities owned by both government and private individual. Lafia has one general Hospital and clinics include: Kowa clinic, oshegabe clinic, Namu clinic, Agu clinic Sandayi clinics. Etc and many medical stores. 

1.8          Statement of Hypothesis

            In order to carry out this research work the researcher used null hypothesis (Ho2 to test her assumption. The research uses the following hypothesis for investigation of the stated problems thus:

            Researcher uses the following hypothesis for investigation of the stated problems thus:

1.    What are the responses of the people towards environmental sanitation in their vicinity?

2.    Did people respond very well by coming out for environmental exercises on designated dates?

3.    Are the streets of Lafia town well Kept?

4.    Inadequate toilets facilities do not result in poor sanitation condition in Lafia metropolis.

1.9          Purpose of the Study

          The main purpose of the project is to find out eh attitudes of people of Nasarawa state towards environmental sanitation in Lafia urban environmental, particularly, to find out among other.

1.    Whether there are incinerator s in the town.

2.    Whether dustbins are kept on the road side for proper disposal of refuse.

3.    Whether the inhabitants are simply ignorant of simple sanitation regulation.

4.    If the local authority have up to expectation by providing the basic needs of environmental sanitation.

1.10     Significance of the Study

          The researcher hoped that the study will draw the attention of the inhabitants of Lafia to sanitation condition of their environment.

          It is hoped that the people’s attitude will change from poor they will adopt promoting life styles. These findings will create awareness in the mind of the people as far as sanitations is concerned.  

1.11     Scope and Limitation of the Study

           The research work among other things assesses the attitudes of the Lafia district towards environmental sanitation: whether the Local authorities the basic facilities are provide local authority. Lafia environment and the effects, the environmental sanitation has or the inhabitants in terms of their health.

1.12     Definition of Terms

Incinerator: Is a large furnace usually with a long chimney, where refuse is burnt.

Pollution: dirty materials that destroy the purity of the atmosphere.

Sanitation: Is arrangement to project public health especially for the effect disposal of sewage.

Attitude: Is people’s way of thinking feelings and behaviors.

Dustbins: These are large buckets with lids or wooden boxes which have covers, refuse are drop inside and are empty by the health or sanctuary labours and are kept clean ways.

Personal Hygiene: Is a sate where by a person exhibit complete physical mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity

Refuse Disposal: These are west materials like kitchen refuse, resulting from animals or vegetable matter, ashes, pieces of paper and wrappers excretory wasters such as urine feast matter like wastes from kitchen and washing brown which are deposited into the dustbins

Behavior: Oxford advance learners dictionary says that behavior is the way a person, an animal, a chemical etc behave or functions, in a particular situation.

Manner: This simply means the way that one behaves and speaks toward other people in a particular society or culture.

Drainage system: This is the process by which water or liquid is drained from an area.

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