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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
One aim of science teaching is to enhance pupils’ understanding of scientific concepts. Another is to develop children’s capacity to understand scientific procedures and to investigate scientifically. Understanding is a mental state, the product of mental processes which infer relationships between elements of information (Johnson-Laird, 1983, 1987; Halford, 1993). Teachers cannot give learners this mental state but can attempt to support the mental processing which gives rise to it. They might do this by providing conceptual structures which embody the relationships or, paradoxically, by withholding such structures (Newton, 1996). However, it would be wrong to characterize these as passive and active learning. Both may require the learner to participate actively in constructing meaning. Research in science education has placed more emphasis on children’s understanding of scientific concepts with less emphasis on teacher trainees’ conceptualization of scientific concepts (Linder & Erickson, 1989; Driver, 1989; Yip, 1998). One reason cited for less emphasis on teachers’ conceptualization of science concepts is the belief that teachers had extra time at the college/university level to focus on their studies and consequently have acquired an understanding of scientific concepts (Linder & Erickson, 1989).
However, it is becoming increasingly important to investigate teacher trainees’ conceptualization of scientific concepts because they will ‘talk and explain’ science concepts to children. Therefore, it is expected that teacher preparatory institutions would teach teacher trainees in a way that places more emphasis on knowledge construction and with less emphasis on knowledge acquisition. Such a move would help teacher trainees to do the same to learners.
Although some studies have been conducted on teacher’ conceptualizations of biological concepts, they are, however, very few indeed (Boo, 2005; Yip. 2007).
However, these studies have been very helpful since they indicated biological concepts in which teachers are deficient and possess misconceptions (Boo, 2005).
This current study therefore aims at obtaining insights into teachers’ conceptualization of immunological processes. In comparison to the wealth of information on some concepts in biology, the research literature on teachers’ conceptualization of immunological processes is under-represented yet immunological processes are crucial to the life of all organisms on earth. Teachers therefore should have a clear conception of immunological processes so that they are proficient at explaining them to children. Furthermore, teachers’ understanding of immunological processes would help them to explain HIV/AIDS pandemic better.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Over time in Nigeria, there has been several polices earmarked to enhance the teaching method adopted in basic primary science teacher and implication for children conceptualization. This was aimed at enhancing children’s level of productivity and academic excellence at ensuring the overall adoption of effective teaching methods. However, the performance of some teaching methods has gravely affected the conceptualization of children’s understanding. In assessing the implication of teaching method in basic primary science in Nigeria, certain indices were used for analysis such as improved teaching aids. Analysis showed that certain factors such as poor technical-know-how and method of teaching by the teachers, lack of transparency, lack of effective relationship between the teachers and the student.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study include:
- To identify various teaching methods adopted in basic primary science teaching.
- To identify the implication of primary science teaching methods.
- To recommend the best teaching methods for primary science teaching.
- To identify some teaching problems and solutions in Nigerian academic institution.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What are the various teaching methods adopted in basic primary science teaching?
- What are the implications of primary science teaching methods?
- What are the best teaching methods for primary science teaching?
- What are the teaching problems in Nigerian academic institutions?
- What are the solutions to the teaching problems in Nigerian Academic Institution?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work on teaching method adopted in basic primary science teaching and implication for children conceptualization will provide typical information that will be useful to both government and stakeholders in our various primary and secondary schools.
Therefore the emphasis is on increasing teaching efficiency and methods. The study will help to promote a sound level of academic relationship and learning between the teacher and the school children.
The study would help to make academic stakeholders more knowledgeable and informed on how best to achieve high performance and sound management in academic institution.
The research work is important in that it would bring to lime light, the contributory factors to these problems of poor management efficiency in tertiary institution and the general implications on the system, the environment and the people that the system is meant to serve.
The work will also serve as a source of literature for students and researchers who may want to carry out further researches on similar or related issue or topic.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work is actually carried out to examine the teaching method adopted in basic primary science teaching and implication for children conceptualization
However, this research works being a requirement for the award of National Diploma (ND). Among other inhibiting factors, the researcher was constrained as a result of limited time and insufficient funds.
Furthermore, the prevalent economic crunch and the attendant financial and mobility constraints played another devastating role in preventing the researcher to use certain approaches and methods in the course of this study.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Some definitions of terms as used in the study were as below;
However, for the purpose of this study, the terms defined include:
Collaborative: A collaborative piece of work is done by two or more people or groups working together.
Demonstration: A demonstration of something is a talk by someone who shows you how to do it or how it works.
Education: Education involves teaching people various subjects, usually at a school or college, or being taught.
Science: Science is the study of the nature and behaviour of natural things and the knowledge that we obtain about them.
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