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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Sex education, which is sometimes called sexuality education or sex and relationship education is a process of acquiring information and forming attitude and belief about sex, sexual identity relationships and intimacy.
Ross David A (2008) stated that sex education seeks both to reduce the risk of potentially negative outcome from sexual behavior, like unintended pregnancies and sexual transmitted diseases. He also noted that its aim is to enhance the quality of relationships which includes developing young peoples mind and abilities to make decisions over their life time.
It is also about developing young people skills so that they make informed choices about their behavior and feel confident and competent about acting on these choices. It is widely accepted that young people have a right to sex education partly because it is a means by which they are helped to protect themselves against abuse, exploration, unintended pregnancies, sexual transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS.
Nwachukwu Egbunike Guardian Newspaper May (2004) a medical laboratory scientist in Ibadan, focused on reducing risk behaviors among adolescents. He noted that facts are never mentioned by the advocate of contraception that is hell bent on its uses as the safest way of preventing HIV/AIDS. Some school of thought believed that children should be allowed to find out things for themselves on matters relating to sex education, while others believed that the subject should be taught in schools so as to guide Nigerian youth in their sex problems and relationships with the opposite sex.
Yinka Osasona Sun news March (2009) suggested that the knowledge of sex education could go along way to help the youth avoid much harm to their bodies and also avoid the dreaded diseases. In the olden days, youths were normally kept in dark on matters concerning sex until Shine S A (2004) noted that it has been agreed by almost all education authorities (worldwide), that school children must acquire proper knowledge for changes that take place in their bodies and mind as they grow into adulthood. They need to be guided to the kind of conduct the society expects from them with respect to the sexual aspect of their lives, he stressed that the purpose of it is to provide both children and youths with scientific concept of the subject matter and to develop positive and critical attitude towards the practice and satisfaction of sexual feelings and derives.
Sex education has got varied meaning with different authors, Dick and Ross A (2006) explained that sex education involves teaching and learning to recognize and accept human sexuality in oneself and others with the hope of using the knowledge towards the greatest creativity and fulfillment in peoples lives. Ross David (2008) clarifies the confusion about the meaning of sex education, he wrote that sex education is to be distinguished from sex information and can be described as character education, he stated that it consist of instruction to develop understanding of physical, mental, emotional, social, economic and psychological phase of human relation as they are affected by male and female relationship.
However, this concept of sex education is not accepted in many secondary schools in Enugu educational zone, thus a failure to understand that in any human society to realize the inevitability of sexual relationship and the need to measure up to a certain required standard for safety in sexual relationships has made sex education an issue of great importance from experience the researchers maintained that people in some part of the world do not encourage premarital relationship and are treated as taboo especially among secondary school students, majority of whom are at their adolescent stage of development, they are challenged with all sorts of sexual influences from the society.
Johnson (2008) stated that student learn much about sex from the perception of their parents, family members and other member of the society. This also is learned from the answers given to the children’s question at home, although not all parent are competent to give such desired answers hence such children are left with much uncertainty and embarrassment about sex. He noted that this could lead to worry and shock that may prejudice feelings about sex even with adult life.
Ross David. A. (2008) opined that it is necessary for educational administrators to draw an effective program of study which would provide these adolescents with the correct and adequate information towards sex. In addition, the social changes taking place particularly in standard of family life, sexual conduct and attitude towards marriage are affecting almost all societies; therefore it is necessary to educate young people/students on sex issues so that they will base their future life on sound and ethical principles. In view of this fact, it is pertinent to look into the attitude of teachers and student towards the teaching of sex education in Enugu education zone of Enugu state, in order to see whether sex education is given its due attention.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Sex education has been viewed by different researchers, teachers and the students as it has generated some social predicaments such as illegal abortion, unintended pregnancies which most of the time results to untimely death, spreading of some sexual diseases (such as gonorrhea, staphylococcus, and HIV/AIDS ) and high rate of bastard in the society. Also it can create some social misconduct such as masturbation, pedophilia, voyeurism, bestiality.
To summarize it, these problems have created great dangers to individuals and society at large, the above problems mentioned and others are very worrisome to the researchers who belief that proper teaching of sex education in schools will go a long way in solving these problems.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Specifically the study attempted to find out the followings:
1. If Secondary schools teach sex education in Enugu State.
2. Students’ attitude towards the teaching and learning of sex education in secondary schools.
3. Teachers attitude towards the teaching and learning of sex education in secondary schools.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Are senior secondary school students in Enugu state taught sex education.
2. What are Students’ attitude towards the teaching and learning of sex education in secondary schools in Enugu State?
3. What are Teachers attitude towards the teaching and learning of sex education in secondary schools in Enugu State?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this study cannot be overemphasized. It is expected that the findings will enable curriculum planners to restructure sex education in the school curriculum. The result of this research would serve as a base for the general public to access the values of sex education in secondary school system. This would hopefully contribute to the gradual eradication of some social problems such as abortion, unintended pregnancies, and contraction of sexual transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS and high rate of bastard. This study will enable the teachers to devote time and interest towards the teaching of sex education in secondary school so to create impact in their lives and also make the study interesting to them. This study will improve the student’s knowledge on sex, its negative out come and risk. Most importantly it will serve as a resourceful material for future researchers.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The scope this study covers the investigation of teacher’s attitudes towards the teaching of sex education in secondary school in Enugu education zone, investigation of student attitudes towards the teaching and learning of sex education in secondary school in Enugu education zone.
This work is limited by the fact that issues of sex are considered confidential by most people, so many were not ready to discuss such issues in the public, some sees the discussion pertaining to sex as immoral. Thus they could not have expressed their true feelings about the variable of investigation. To reduce this effect, the researcher explained to the respondents what the study is all about and solicits for their honest opinion and assured them that their responses would be treated as confidential.
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms used in this work are defined to avoid in consistency in their operational sense.
PERCEPTION: The way an individual sees and believes something.
REPRODUCTIVE: A process of producing young ones
ADOLESCENT: A young person who is developing from childhood to adulthood between the ages of 13 to 20.
MISCONCEPTION: An idea which is wrong or untrue but which people believe because they do not understand it properly.
SEXUALITY: The feelings and activities connected with a person's sexual desires.
ABORTION: The deliberate ending of a pregnancy at an early stage.
CONTRACEPTION: The practice of preventing a woman from becoming pregnant.
INFERTILITY: Inability of an individual to produce children.
TEENAGER: A young person between ages of 13 to 19 years old
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows: Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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