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1.1       Background of the Study

Technical Colleges have been training people to become craftsmen; training qualifies them for jobs in both public and private sectors of the economy. Both sectors according to (Akpobash, 2014) required well trained and competent craftsmen who can operate and manage the available technical tools and equipment; therefore there is need for the right strategies for improving the management of automobile workshops in the technical colleges to produce graduates that can perform competently in their chosen vocation without a need for pre-employment training. This condition can be met through a curriculum that is relevant and comprehensive and well equipped workshops with relevant training facilities and management. The strategies for improving the management of automobile workshop equipment, tools and machine in technical colleges needed for providing various skills should be available and kept in good condition and of uses by both staff and students. A well managed automobile workshop tools and equipments provide effectiveness and excitement to all users. However the challenges facing the Management of Automobile Workshop in Technical Colleges in Yobe State revolve on ways and means of providing effective vocational training that can met the need for effective skills acquisition in the Automobile workshop.

Strategy according to (Welister dictionary) is the science and art of enlisting and employing support for certain policies and purposes and for devising plans towards goals. According to Micheal porter (2008) define strategy as the broad formula for how enterprise is going to compete, what policies will be needed to carry out those goals and the combination of the ends (goals) for which the firm is striving and the means (policies) by which it is seeking to get there. (Johnson and schools 1998) define strategy as the direction and scope of an organization over the long term which achieve advantage for the organization through its configuration of resources within the need of market and to fulfill stakeholder expectation according to (Mckeown 2011) define strategy as the determination of the basic long term goals of an enterprise, and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation of resources necessary for carrying out these, strategies are established to set direction, focus efforts, define or clarify the organization, and provide consistency or guidance in response to the environment.

Management of Automobile workshop, according to (Oral u and Ogwo 1997) is the art and science concerned with planning directing and controlling the work of human being in the workshop towards a common aim in accordance with greed policies. They further explain that there are three workshop management strategies. This includes planning, directing and controlling.

Planning: This is the process of deciding what to do in the workshop for future purposes (Akpobash 2014).

Directing: This comprises the operational of issuing orders instructing those who have to do the work of nature of the plan to be implemented in the workshop and coordination the work of different people involve the staff to motivate their activities.

Controlling: This is described as the controlling of event carried out in the workshops to follow plan and by feeding back information concerning variance to those who are in a position to take corrective action.

According to (Okorie, 2000) workshop management is the act of maintaining, supervising, storing and using of various tools in the workshop. The automobile workshop is an organized place designed and equipped with tools and equipment/machineries particularly for students that automobile workshop management development involves developing the individual manager knowledge skills, and attitudes to meet the present and future needs of the organization, industry workshops e.t.c. The concept of workshop management development is designed to improve the overall effectiveness of managers in their present position and prepare them for great responsibility when they are promoted. (Okerie 2000). State that workshop management is the process of coordinating and planning the resources at a workshop effectively in order to attain the pre-determined objectives. According to (Ibrahim 2016) lecture note state that automobile workshops comprises of the following sections. Auto mechanic section, Auto electrical section, Auto body work repair section and Auto painting section. These sections in the workshop must be maintained in order to improve on the technical knowledge of the students and develop skills on how to manage technical colleges workshops aimed in order to improve on the technical know-how of the students and develop skills on how to manage automobile workshops  (Neil K. 2011) state that automobile workshop management is the process of coordinating and planning the resources in automobile workshop effectively in order to attain the pre-determined objectives systematically and with the greatest knowledge of the future organized effort needed to carry out these decisions against the expectation through organized systematic feedback.

The concept of management in the workshops practical is for the workshop to offer services tailored towards equipping students for future technical challenges and the purposes in view is to seek the best means of attaining it. (Aderalegbe 2001) opined that management of workshop can be refers to the act of maintaining, supervising, storing and issuing of various tools, equipment and operation of some machine within the automobile workshop. Workshop is a place where tool and equipment and machine are kept for practical work. It will become more relevant to constantly evaluate and improve man power requirement for automobile workshop in technical colleges for the development of the state. Although researchers attribute to gross incompetence of technical colleges graduate to the process of planning, organizing staffing and monitoring. The implementation of plan would appear that the method used in performing the above strategies are not to determine whether they may be appropriate or important for managing automobile workshop in technical colleges.

Yet for technical colleges to offer service which the state required from them there must be the function of management as a guide for reviewing and identifying strategies in vital importance. At present there is a question as to how the automobile workshops in technical colleges should be managed to enhance their status and to assist graduate develop occupational skills which may be adopted to the fluctuation of the economic development in the state. Similarly the most important criterion for a well-managed educational system especially technical education system is the extent to which the product of the education system major up to the need generated by its own aspiration and demand. Machine and equipment should arranged in the same pattern in industry, this is by comparing the tools in the workshop and that of the industry so that when students graduate from colleges will not find it difficult to adopt to works situation and this will also go a long way to make the students familiar with tools and equipment that they may likely come across in their place of work.

From the theory of Vocational Technical Education Journal of Technical Education (2005) state that, the training environment should be like working environment itself and that will make the students to be familiar with the working situation likely to face in future. (Ibrahim, 2008) state that Technical Colleges in Yobe State lack adequate management of educational facilities for effectiveness and improving quality of teaching and learning. (Sir S.S. 2016) noted that most of the technical colleges in Yobe State have workshop facilities that are poorly managed and inadequately maintain for effective practical experience, leading to irreparable loses or damages of such facilities also most technical colleges workshop equipment, tools and materials are not well-managed, the achievement of the objectives of learning of vocational courses theory based, engendering confusion and frustration making students to leave colleges without the intended skills therefore, this study will attempt to find out strategies that can be adopted for improving the management of automobile workshops in technical colleges with a view to ensure maximum benefit.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

The effectiveness of workshops management strategies in automobile workshops in technical colleges is very vital in a consistently declining quality of automobile workshops in technical colleges in Yobe state. This concern is exemplified in the finding of the National Board for Technical Education (N.B.T.E 2011) advisory visitation exercise which revealed that the technical colleges work in Yobe state especially automobile are not well managed and that there is also high rate of waste in those workshops. There is also poor coordination of activities and function in automobile workshops in Technical Colleges source in which inevitably results in a poor acquisition automobile workshop in technical colleges in Yobe state contribute a major problems to the successful implementation of development plan. This study therefore, seeks to develop strategies for improving the management of Automobile workshops in Technical Colleges in Yobe State.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of the study is to develop the strategies for improving the Management of Automobile Workshops in Technical Colleges in Yobe State specifically the study will attempt:

1.         To determine level of use and maintenance of tools and equipment in Automobile workshop

2.         To identify the weakness in the present workshop Management Strategies use in Automobile Workshop in Yobe State.

3.         To identify the strategies that can improved the Management of Automobile Workshop in Technical Colleges in Yobe State.

1.4       Significance of the Study

The study will be beneficial to:

1.         The science and technical school board (S.T.S.B) of both Federal and State Government

2.         Automobile technology teacher

3.         Automobile technology students

4.         Automobile workshop instructor

1.         The Science and Technical School Board (S.T.S.B) may use this research in decision making on employment of staff of Automobile workshop. Those who are involve in teaching subject especially automobile the minimum standard of qualification in Technical Colleges is N.C.E (Technical) and their degree holders in Education (Tech) i.e. Bachelor of Education Degree, and Bachelor of Technology Education because those who pass through the training of technical subject e.g automobile technology, building technology, electrical/electronic technology, metal work technology, wood work technology. The subsidiary subject include, technical drawing, mathematics, physics, entrepreneurship etc. the philosophy of N.C.E (Tech) program is to provide technical teachers with the intellectual and professional background adequate for teaching technical subject which I have mentioned in the above and to make them adoptable to any changing situation in technical development not only in the state but in the country at large. The board can also use the findings of this research to train the workshop, automobile teachers and automobile students to educate them on how to use, maintain and manage workshop resources.

2.         Automobile technology teachers will benefits from finding of the study as they learn the recent strategies for improving the management of automobile workshop. They will also become more confident and properly equipped to produce better students it will also serve as a guide for effective teaching and learning situation in the classroom as workshop, teaching is an orderly procedure in which teacher use to direct learners in the development of knowledge skills, attitudes and habits. Teaching method deal with the way as procedure in which information is presented to students. According to (Peter F.D 2005) teaching method are many and they vary some of the methods are demonstration method, project method filed-strip, lecture method and e-learning which is the responsibilities of teacher to use successful method of teaching in order his student to learn better.

3.         The automobile students will find this research very useful in term of vocational and technical education is about the surest means of attaining education for self reliance. The progress of any nation depends on the technological knowhow or do it yourself. There is need to help youths and adult alike develop competence to combine and apply knowledge form the science and art so as to improve the quality of living for the student and enhance self reliance. The skills which individual possess as a result of formal education and training usually provided in colleges although a great deal is learned on the job (Marraim 2015) states in his view that, the aim of technical education to the students is prepared the individual to perform justly, skillfully and to be kind to his fellow men and women working together is the duty of colleges to provide students with educational experience relevant to their future vocational plan, it’s also the responsibilities of vocational and technical colleges to give them the requisite training for competence in specific occupation and this can be achieve when workshop tools, equipment and material are in standard condition including safety to the people and the equipment which will facilitate good knowledge and understanding of the subject matter.

4.         The automobile workshop instructor among all the instructors will find this research very useful through effective utilization of instructional material, the instructional material are all the practical and skill development resources that will facilitate the process of teaching, learning and evaluation of vocational skills.

Selecting Instructional Materials:

The acquisition of diverse vocational skills calls for utilization of diverse instructional materials. Vocational technical programs also differs in contents objectives and approaches of teaching, therefore, there are differences in the materials to be employed in the teaching learning situation. There is need to select material for use as sit matches the need and capabilities of the students based on intended concepts and skills to be taught and learnt. The criteria to consider in selecting vocational instructional materials include: Objectives of intended experiences or learning outcomes, content of the lessons, ability of the learner, learners level of maturity, skills to be demonstrated, supportive service required, teachers manipulative skills, products to be produced, situation to handle materials.

Utilization Instructional Material:

The utilization of instructional materials involves the instructors manipulating tools and equipment, facilities and consumable to facilitate in the teaching learning experience. Vocational skill developments in the students are facilitated by the use of instructional materials in situation such as:

Demonstrating specific skills, carrying out manually operated functions, providing supporting functioning of used equipment and tools, performing mechanically operated activities, promoting student memory and development and recall. Aiding student skills development activities, evaluation the success of skill acquisition.

(Jolly 2005) states that, the selection and utilization of instructional materials are based the objectives and economy of utilization.

Safety Use of Instructional Materials.

The Automobile workshop instructors according to (Brawn 2004) states, the actual operation in which to use instructional material forms the basis of identifying what material to use, when to use them, how and at what stages of the operation will the material fit for effectiveness. For instructional material to be effective during teaching the instructor should be guided by the following: Handle materials with care to ensure effective use, ensure effective maintenance culture of equipments and tools, provide proper storage for equipment and tools, control wastage through prudent usage of materials, and educate the student on the techniques of manipulation and management of equipment, tools and material.

Safety practice can best be stressed in connection with the use and handling of such materials like acid, inflammable substances, paints finishes electrical appliances, slippery floors, e.t.c. if the learners can be prevailed upon to develop proper attitudes and behavior, in the workshop safety precautions will usually be evident in all their endeavours.

According to (Kelly 2005) states, the instructor should take full advantage of his position and regard safety as one of the most important aspect of his responsibilities before the learner, the community and the state.

Instructional Materials and Devices

Teaching is the science and art of assisting a person to learn, the science in teaching entails use of the acquired knowledge from natural and behavioral sciences in order to help appreciate the circumstance and personality of a learner, while the art aspect of teaching involves the creative and demonstrative skills in aiding the delivery of instruction-instructors need specific training in subject content and its methodology to guarantee their effectiveness. Effective teaching can hardly be achieved without the use of some necessary instructional materials. The two important attitudes for learning are interest and attention. The best things that capture attention are audio visual materials. They are potent starters and motivators. Audio visual materials according to (Morphy 2007) states interest and vitality to any learning situation as a result, they enable students to learn faster, retain concept. Audio visual materials are regarded as teaching aids. They are most effective when used to supplement the instructors personality and teaching skill. Carefully and accurate combination of audio visual material with good textbooks and good teaching techniques will develop ideal learning situations. According to (Chesser 2007) states, instructional materials is any device employed by the instructor to transmit facts, facilitate skills knowledge acquisition, and improve on attitude/understanding of the learners. Instructional materials include models, objects drawings, graphs, charts, pictures, films and specimens used for instructor for the effective teaching and learning.

Therefore instructors will find the research useful: Demonstrating specific goals and skills, safety use of instructional material, and instructional materials and devices.

1.5       Research Questions

            The study will answer the following research question.

i.          What are the levels of used and maintenance of tools and equipment in Automobile Workshop?

ii.         What are the weaknesses in the present workshop management strategies applied in Automobile workshop in Yobe State?

iii.        What are the strategies that can help to improve the management of Automobile workshop in Technical Colleges in Yobe State?

1.6       The Scope of the Study

Due to limited resources on the part of the researchers, the study shall be delimited to the strategies for improving the management of Automobile workshop in Technical College in Yobe state.

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