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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page iii
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the study 1
Statement of the problem 6
Purpose of the study 7
Significance of the study 8
Research questions 9
Scope of the study 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concept and general principles of teaching Metal Work practical skills 10
Instructional methods of teaching practical skills in Metal Work 12
Strategies for teaching Metal Work practical skills 15
Adequacy of facilities in Technical College workshops 18
Strategies toward acquiring adequate facilities in our college workshops 20
Safety precaution in the workshop 22
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Research Design 30
Area of the study 30
Population of the study 31
Sample and sampling techniques 32
Instrument for data collection 32
Validation of the instrument 33
Reliability of the instrument 35
Method of data collection 35
Method of data analysis 35
Decision rule 35
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND DATA ANALYSIS
Summary of findings 41
Discussion of findings 42
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Re-statement of the problems 49
Summary of the procedures 50
Major findings 51
Implications of the study 51
Suggestion for further study 55
Students’ abilities to demonstrate practical skills in Metal Work are not up to the standards which are obtainable in industries. The poor performance of students in Metal Work practical skills at the Technical College level in Kaduna state has been grossly attributed to several factors among which are; instructional methods or strategies employed by teachers during the teaching of Metal Work or Foundary as a subject, and strategies being adopted in enforcing safety standards in the workshop. It is therefore worthy of note that strategies being adopted by teachers in teaching Metal Work practical skills are defective hence there is that dire need for improvement. This study was undertaken to determine these grey areas so as to improve in the teaching of these skills in all our Technical Colleges in Kaduna State. To be specific, the study was determined to focus on instructional methods of teaching Metal Work Practical Skills, strategies for the enforcement of safety standards in the workshop, all in an effort to enhance the effective teaching of Metal Work practical skills. Descriptive research design was used for this study. Total population was 650, comprising 25 Metal Work Technology teachers and 625 students from the five Technical Colleges in the State. Stratified random sampling was used and the sample population was 240 consisting of 5 teachers and 235 students. The instrument for collection of data was face validated by two experts from the department and its reliability coefficient was 0.65. The study showed that a vast number of strategies have been in practice all in an effort to enhance the effective teaching of practical skills. These strategies include allowing the student the opportunity to make input about past practical work as well as assigning the class representatives the duty of being overseers in ensuring that the workshop are well tidied after every practical session or lesson. It was also suggested that students should be involved also in arranging tools, machines and equipment in same pattern as those found in the industry, in order to minimize the needed adjustment after leaving school or in the field of work.
Background of the study
Technical Colleges in Nigeria have been training people to become craftsmen and technicians. Training qualifies them for jobs both in public and private sectors of the economy. Both sectors, according to Ndomi (2005), require well trained and competent technicians who can operate and maintain the available technical equipment. According to Nigeria Policy on Education (NPE) (2004), Technical Education is that aspect of education which leads to the acquisition of practical skills in metal work, Metal furniture construction, interior decoration, Foundary etc, as well as basic scientific knowledge. Therefore, there is an ardent need for qualitative Technical College for acquiring the desired knowledge (education) and training to produce graduates that can perform competently in their chosen vocation without a need for pre-employment training. The major goal of vocational institutions is to prepare students for successful employment in the labor market (Finch and Crunkilton (1999). This condition can be met through a curriculum that is relevant and comprehensive with relevant training facilities. School workshops offer opportunities for practical training of students in skills acquisition in their technical trade areas for future development of the key sector of the economy in order to meet the basic needs of electricity, roads, and machinery among others. Students’ practical projects in Metal Work or Foundary are an important part of the curriculum in Technical Colleges, but a supportive school environment is a fundamental requirement for the successful implementation of the curriculum (Bybee and Loucks – Horsely, 2000; Penny and Fox, 1997). This aspect of the curriculum can only be implemented where facilities in the workshop are adequate and relevant. Availability of appropriate facilities enhance student learning by allowing them to be involved in demonstrations, and practice will continue to build their skills. According to Leighbody and Kidd (1968), there are certain things the trainer or teacher must do as well as the student which may involve careful planning of his activities for effective learning.
Knowledge of available teaching methods is an asset that is valuable toward effective teaching. However, such knowledge is only a foundation upon which the daily work of the teacher may be built. According to Ericson and Robert (1976), the success in teaching depends upon skills application of teaching method appropriately selected and applied in daily contacts between the teachers and students. In order to make teaching effective, the teacher must analyse the instructional content and plan the teaching procedure sequentially ahead of time for full coverage of the subject area regardless of the basic method of teaching used. There are although a wide range of recognized methods of teaching employed in Vocational and Technical Education which teachers are aware of or may need to be aware of and to be put into usage when the occasion demands. Although the knowledge and mastery of these methods would help the teacher know areas that such methods are applicable and what feedbacks or result the teacher may require at the end. Furthermore, these methods mostly employed by teachers do present skills, knowledge and concise appreciation to the learner in the classroom and also engage the learner in the task involved.
However, it has been observed by Ukoha and Eneogwe in Ogwo (1996) that not all teaching methods are equally appropriate to assist the learner attain all instructional objectives. While some of these methods are most suitable for a smaller group, others are most effective and suitable for a large group during instruction. According to them, aggregates of these variables may result to anxiety over the best method to choose for successful teaching. Also Okoro (1993), observed that ineffective instructional strategies employed by teachers reduce students rate of learning technical skill as well as the extend to which the objectives of the course are attained. Most of the students of Metal Work do not seem to meet the qualities that are expected of them which is because of weaknesses associated with the instructional strategies that have been adopted by their teachers.
Thus for the attainment of quality Metal Work students, there is need for proper teaching strategies. Fulford (1999), defines instructional strategies as a long time planning of action designed to achieved a particular goal.
Furthermore, there is also that need to manage effectively the equipment and material. Faire and Hutching (1994) opined that the management of resources in Metal Work technology is the choice of the right materials, tools, and equipment for making accurate layout, preparing the parts to shapes, marking and making the right joints as well as assembling carefully the parts and application of the proper finish. However, most of the Technical Colleges in Nigeria have been forced to perform below standard due to purported non-availability, poor management or utter neglect of the required facilities in the workshop for effective training.
In order to ensure effective teaching and learning of practical skills in Metal Work, there is the need to enforce safety standard to be practiced. Bukar (2000), define safety standard as the observance of rules and regulations guiding proper conduct in the workshop. These rules and regulations include the ability of the students to observe the safety standards that are necessary to produce good products and also saving the life of equipment and the workshop in general.
Available literature reveals that students are deficient in terms of Metal Work practical skills in Kaduna state which is being attributed to several factors. Among which are methods or strategies employed by teachers of technical subjects like Metal Work which reduce the rate of concentration and mastery of Metal Work practical skills.
Ideally in the Metal Work workshop, there is equipment for acquiring skills, consumable materials purchased and distributed for practical, physical facilities arranged and given occupational direction so that acceptable work habits and procedure are successfully executed. Towe (2000) and Asilokun (2004) maintained that these workshops were originally designed or built for small populations of students. However, in recent times, the students population especially in urban schools has increased tremendously thereby over-stressing the available space and facilities. To worsen this situation, Puyate (2002), maintained that the present state of vocational education facilities is very poor, there is no planned means of maintenance of the already broken down equipment. There is still no or little concern on the part of the teachers on managing the rate of wastage of materials and high risk of using blunt tools. These lead to student producing poorly finished practical project. This pathetic situation needs to be reversed in order to meet the goals of Technical and Vocational education in general and Metal Work technology education in particular as enshrined in the National Policy on Education (Federal Government of Nigeria, 2004), whose goal is to provide trained manpower in the Applied Sciences, Technology and Business particularly at craft schools; provide the technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural, commercial and economic development; to give training and impart the necessary skills to individuals who shall be self reliant economically.
Statement of the problem
The lingering poor performance of students in Metal Work practical in our Colleges and Schools in Kaduna State is solely due to the strategies employed by Metal Work Teachers in teaching Metal Work and managing practical work. Although, several factors have been identified by some educators, among which, according to Okoro (1993), is the instructional methods and strategies employed by Metal Work teachers in the teaching, and during the managing of practical work.
Another impeding factor militating against the effectiveness of practical skills in our Technical College raised according to Garba (1995) is the ineffective management of tools, materials and equipments. Courtney (1980) lamented also that there is a problem of student non-challant altitude toward practicals in Metal Work as well as student not observing workshop rules and regulation. However, not employing the proper instructional methods and strategies, ineffective management of tools, equipment and materials and lack of enforcement of safety standards leads or can result to the students not acquiring Metal Work practical skill in our Technical Colleges in Kaduna State. Hence there is the need to improve the existing practices associated with teaching and managing of Metal Work practicals, tools and materials which have been defective and militating against the improvement of skills acquisition in our Technical Colleges.
Purpose of the study
The general purpose of this study was to identify the most preferred strategies that can be used to enhance the effective teaching of Metal Work practical skills at the Technical College level in Kaduna state. This study especially was done to determine:
- The adequacy of the facilities, equipments and machines in our Technical Colleges in Kaduna State.
- The strategies toward acquiring adequate facilities in Technical College workshops.
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